Relaxation in a class in kindergarten. The use of relaxation in work with dhow students
Consultation for teachers with elements of a workshop
“Using the relaxation method in the work of a preschool teacher”
As part of the health-preserving direction, the kindergarten teachers are faced with the task of promoting the emotional well-being of the participants in the educational process: children and parents. One of the work methods used to solve this problem is the relaxation method.
Relaxation exercises can be used with the following children:
· Hyperactive, because according to the observations of psychologists and doctors, such children not only have difficulty controlling their behavior, but also poorly control their own body , do not feel it enough. Relaxation contributes to the development of directed attention, differentiated motor and mental reactions, which gives uniformity to the child’s psycho-motor development. Thanks to relaxation, muscle hypertonicity and hypotonia are normalized, the feeling of one’s body develops;
· Prone to aggressive behavior, because they are often characterized by muscle clamps, especially in the face and hands;
· Shy, because these children, despite their outward insensitivity, experience the same storm of emotions as other children, but cannot show them, react outwardly. This contributes to the fact that children “boil” inside and often turn this negative energy on themselves, which stimulates the development of auto-aggressive and neurotic manifestations (tics, tingling, etc.).
In addition, relaxation exercises are used in the preparatory group . They can be included in various activities to prepare children for school education, to restore working capacity, as well as for the emotional development of the child.
Active mental activity and accompanying emotional experiences create excessive excitement in the nervous system, which, accumulating, leads to tension in the muscles of the body. The ability to relax allows you to eliminate anxiety, agitation, stiffness, restores strength, and increases the supply of energy.
To achieve the maximum effect from relaxation exercises, you must be able to choose the right music repertoire. Music should be calm, soothing, relaxing, it should not strain or irritate. These can be sounds of nature: the sound of the sea, the splash of water, the murmur of a brook, the chirping of birds, etc. or just some light unobtrusive motive.
Examples of relaxation exercises for children 4-6 years old
“In the meadow”
Imagine a forest clearing with soft grass-ants growing. You lie on it like on a featherbed. Everything around is calm and quiet, you breathe evenly and easily. A field flower is bending over you, birds are singing, grasshoppers chirping, you feel the gentle rays of the sun stroking your forehead, cheeks, touching your hands, stroking your whole body … (pause – stroking children). The rays are stroking … (name), caressing … (and so on every child). It’s good for you, it’s nice … Now stretch yourself and on the count of three, open your eyes. You were wonderfully rested.
Today my children did a lot, played and, probably, got tired. I suggest you be a little lazy. You are lazy and luxuriate on a soft, soft carpet. It is quiet and calm around, you breathe easily and freely. A feeling of pleasant peace and relaxation encompasses your entire body. You are resting calmly, you are lazy. Your hands are resting, your legs are resting … (pause – stroking the children). Hands rest at … (name), legs rest at … (name).
Pleasant warmth covers your entire body, you are too lazy to move, you are pleased. Your breathing is completely calm. Your arms, legs, whole body are relaxed. A sense of pleasant peace fills you from within. You rest, you are lazy. Pleasant laziness spreads all over the body. You enjoy complete peace and relaxation, which brings you strength and good mood… Stretch, shake off your laziness, and on the count of three, open your eyes. You feel well rested and in a cheerful mood.
You are in a magical winter forest. Wonderful frosty day. You are pleased, you feel good, you breathe easily and freely. Imagine that you are light, delicate snowflakes. Your handles are light-light – these are the thin rays of a snowflake. Your body is also light, light, as if it were woven from snow fluffs. A light breeze blew and the snowflakes flew. With each inhalation and exhalation, you rise higher and higher above the magical forest.
A gentle breeze gently strokes small, light snowflakes … (pause – stroking the children). Strokes … (name), caresses … (name). You feel good and pleasant. But now it’s time to return home. Stretch and on the count of three, open your eyes and smile at the gentle breeze and fragile snowflake.
Game “By the Sea”
Instruction. Children are invited to imagine that they are playing on the seashore, splashing in the water. Having bathed a lot, the children come out of the water and lie down on the sand warmed by the sun … They close their eyes from the bright sun, spread their arms and legs in pleasant bliss.
1. “Playing with sand” (for tension and relaxation of the hands).
Pick up imaginary sand (while inhaling). Clenching your fingers tightly into a fist, hold the sand in your hands (holding your breath). Sprinkle sand on your knees, gradually opening your toes (as you exhale). Brush the sand off your hands by relaxing your hands and fingers. Drop your hands powerlessly along your body: too lazy to move your heavy arms.
Repeat 2-3 times.
2. “Playing with an ant” (for tension and relaxation of the legs).
Imagine that an ant (ants) has climbed onto your toes and runs over them. Pull the socks towards you with force, the legs are tense, straight (as you inhale). Leave your socks in this position, listen to which finger the ant is sitting on (holding your breath). Kick the ant off your toes (as you exhale). Socks look down to the sides, relax your legs: they are resting. Repeat 2-3 times.
3. “The sun and the cloud” (for tension and relaxation of the muscles of the trunk)
The sun has gone down behind a cloud, it has become fresh – squeeze into a ball to keep warm (holding your breath). The sun came out from behind a cloud, it is hot – relax: it was defrosted in the sun (on exhalation)
4. “Water got into the ears” (for tension and relaxation of the neck muscles).
While lying on your back, shake your head rhythmically, shaking out the water from one ear, then from the other.
5. “The face tans” (for tension and relaxation of the muscles of the face).
The chin tans – substitute the chin for the sun, slightly unclench your lips and teeth (while inhaling). A bug flies, is going to sit down on the tongue of one of the children. Close your mouth tightly (holding your breath). The bug flew away. Open your mouth slightly, exhale the air with relief. Chasing the bug away, you can energetically move your lips.
The nose tans – put your nose to the sun, your mouth half open. A butterfly is flying. Chooses whose nose to sit on. Wrinkle your nose, lift your upper lip up, leave your mouth half open (holding your breath). The butterfly flew away. Relax the muscles in your lips and nose (as you exhale). Eyebrows – swing; the butterfly has arrived again, let the butterfly swing on the swing. Move your eyebrows up and down. The butterfly flew away completely.
I want to sleep, relax the muscles of the face. Without opening your eyes, crawl into the shade, take a comfortable position.
6. “Sleep by the sea.”
Hear the sound of the sea. Imagine that you are having a dream (the presenter tells its content – sleep options may be different, depending on what the children did in class); you see in a dream what we were doing today … (thus, the impressions and skills received are consolidated). (Pause.) You will wake up at a signal (by count, when the pipe starts playing, etc.). (Pause.)
Note. At the signal, the children stand up vigorously or, if the situation requires it, slowly and calmly.
When interacting with the parents of the pupils, relaxation exercises are used during:
· Individual consultations;
· Parenting meetings or other events;
Exercise “Rainbow” for the parent meeting
Purpose: relieve emotional stress.
Instructions: Close your eyes. Imagine that there is a screen in front of you. On the screen, you see a rainbow – the colors you like. Each color has its own mood and feeling.
The first color is blue. Blue can be soft and soothing, like flowing water. Blue pleasantly caresses the eye in the heat. It refreshes you like swimming in a lake. What do you see when you think of blue?
The next color is red. Red gives us energy and warmth. It’s good to look at him when it’s cold. Sometimes too much red makes us angry. Sometimes he reminds us of love. What do you think when you look at red?
The color yellow brings us joy. It warms us like the sun and we smile. If we are sad and lonely, he cheers up. What do you think when you look at yellow?
Green is the color of nature. If we are sick or uncomfortable, green helps us feel better. What do you think when you look at it?
Do you notice how different colors affect your mood and even your well-being? Try to see other colors as well.
Questions for analyzing the state after the exercise:
· What were your feelings during this exercise?
· What color has most effectively influenced your well-being and mood?
In addition to special exercises, reminders for parents are created, which suggest possible ways of self-regulation of the emotional state.
The need for relaxing exercises with parents is due to the importance of harmonizing parent-child relations, in this connection it is necessary to: teach parents to communicate with children, taking into account the individual characteristics of each; to form their ability to manage their emotions and feelings at critical moments.
And this is difficult to achieve with a high workload of adults, their chronic fatigue. The teacher’s task is to teach parents to relax so as not to transfer their irritation associated with problems at work or with other people on the relationship with the child.
Material for the design of a memo to parents
I. How to help yourself
The most effective method of acquiring relaxation skills is autonomous training, i.e. relaxation of the muscles of the body, regulation of cardiac activity, influencing the rhythm of breathing, etc.Take the “coachman pose”: sit on a chair, relax, tilt your head slightly forward, put your elbows on your knees, spread your legs. Say the following text: “I am completely calm.
The heart beats evenly. Thoughts flow smoothly and slowly. I rest. I am completely calm. Relax, calm down, rest. Let thoughts leave your head. Rest your neck, chest, and arms. Listen to yourself: warmth and light are already in you. They carry away grief, bad mood. Listen to the silence. She is silent and tells you to rest ”.
After general relaxation, you can do the following exercises. “Breath”
1. Take a deep breath, slowly raise your arms through the sides up.
2. Exhale with an open strong sound “A-A-A”.
3. Inhale, arms up to shoulder level.
4. Exhale with a strong sound “0-0-0” (hug yourself by the shoulders, lower your head to your chest). Take a slow, deep breath.
6. Slow, deep exhalation with the sound “U-U-U” (hands down).
“Fingers into a fist”
Make a fist with your thumb inside. Exhale calmly, at this time make a fist. Then, releasing the squeeze, inhale. The exercise is performed simultaneously with both hands (5 times).
“The scent of roses”
Imagine a bouquet of roses and breathe in the scent of imaginary flowers, enjoying their scent.
Imagine that your body is slowly “embraced” by a warm sunbeam. It warms the head, face, neck, arms, legs. The beam moves, and wrinkles are smoothed, tension in the occiput, neck and back disappears. You become calm and contented with life.
We remove the headache , if any.
Imagine you forgot your umbrella at home. It started to rain. Warm, calm, pleasant. You feel good in the rain. Light drops fall on the head, shoulders. Feel the raindrops on yourself, while with the pads of your fingers gently touch your head, face, neck – now slowing down, then accelerating.
Down with unpleasant thoughts! “Drawing”
Take colored pencils and, without hesitation, draw abstract lines with your left hand. Look at what you have done, try to find the outlines of one or more objects among the lines. Color them in and admire what you have created.
“Ears on the crown!”
Physiologists have proven that there are many points on the auricles associated with internal organs. By acting on them, a person is able to relieve physical pain, normalize the functioning of internal organs , and activate the body’s reserves for active life. Follow these steps:
With the index fingers of both hands, pull the ears at the same time, starting from the upper edge and gradually going down to the lobe;
Massage the earlobes first and then the entire auricle. Finally, rub your ears with your hands.
2. Charge positive thinking “Just today”
Say the following to yourself every morning. Encourage yourself to take action. Remember to use words of encouragement to yourself. Think about happiness, strength, and peace. I wish you success.
1. Today I will have a calm day and I will be happy. Happiness is the inner state of every person. Happiness does not depend on external circumstances. My happiness lies within me. Each person is happy as much as he wants to be happy.
2. Today I will be included in the life that surrounds me, and I will not try to adapt it to my desires. I will accept my child, my family, my work and the circumstances of my life as they are, and I will try to fully comply with them.
3. Today I will take care of my health. I will exercise, take care of my body, avoid unhealthy habits and thoughts.
4. Today I will pay attention to my general development . I’ll do something useful. I will not be lazy and will make my mind work.
5. Today I will continue my moral self-improvement. I will be useful (oh) and necessary (oh) to my child, family, myself (oh).
6. Today I will be benevolent (flax) to everyone. I will look my best, be gracious and generous in praise. I will not find fault with people and try to fix them.
7. It is today that I will live with the problems of the present day. I will not seek to immediately solve the problem of my child’s health.
8. Today I will outline the program of my affairs, which I want to carry out. This program will save me from haste, indecision, even if I cannot exactly execute it.
9. Today I will spend half an hour in peace and loneliness, completely relaxed.
10. Today I will not be afraid of life and my own happiness. I will love and believe that those I love love and believe in me.
Summary of the lesson for teachers of the preschool educational institution “Using the relaxation method in the work of the teacher”
Purpose: to teach teachers the skills of psychological relaxation and its use in the daily activities of preschoolers to preserve the psychological health of children in a preschool institution.
Plan:1. The concept of relaxation and the essence of relaxation techniques.
2. The influence of relaxation techniques on the body.
3. Children’s relaxation therapy.
4. Relaxation sessions for teachers.
1. The intensity and tension of modern life, as well as a lack of time and energy for rest, a tough work schedule, various disharmony – in the family, on the street, etc. – generate excessive tension in the body, which has the ability to accumulate.
The accumulating stress is perceived by the human body as a stressful condition, while the person may not even realize that he is already under stress.
Nevertheless, this state is accompanied by: increased excitability, tension, anxiety, irritation, anger, resentment, etc. up to and especially noticeable when it comes to painful sensations in the body – physically sensing; somatic reactions of the body and illness. By these signs, it becomes clear to a person that he needs a rest!
How do you relax? (sleep, sports, bath, alcohol, etc.)
There is a physiology of “tightness”. Changes in the central nervous system, primarily emotional tension, themselves lead to uncontrolled muscle tension. A situation is created, known in pathophysiology as a pathological vicious circle – the central nervous system strains the skeletal muscles, and that, in turn, further strains the central nervous system (as a result, increased muscle tone).
To break this circle, you need to relax the skeletal muscles! And the most optimal for this purpose are relaxation techniques.
Relaxation – (from Lat. Relaxation – weakening, relaxation) – reducing the tone of skeletal muscles. Relaxation can be achieved through the use of special psychophysiological techniques, physiotherapy and medications.
Purpose: removal of psycho-emotional stress (physical aspect – work with the body), release of negative emotions (mental aspect – work with the emotional component), development of self-regulation skills (learning to independently apply these techniques, body memory).
Relaxation activities include: auto-training, visualization and meditation techniques, progressive muscle relaxation (Jacobson relaxation), yoga, dancing, aromatherapy and breathing techniques, mandala drawing.
2. Let’s take a closer look at the effect of relaxation techniques on the human body. In children and adults, the end result is the same, only the speed of its achievement differs.
Effects on the body
Neuromuscular changes. The most important and significant effect is complete muscle relaxation, as a result of which the tension in the skeletal muscles can be significantly reduced or disappear altogether. Thanks to this, the tone of the muscles of the legs, arms and trunk weakens.
Changes in the cardiovascular system. Expansion of blood vessels, lower heart rate, lower blood pressure. These processes and changes calm a person, and the nervous system comes to the necessary balance.
changes… Breathing becomes shallow and regular.
Electrodermal changes – changes in the skin – the body temperature rises, the person sweats less.
Changes in the central nervous system. The main goal of relaxation is to restore the normal functioning of the NN, first of all, its ability to normally perceive the factors affecting it and respond to them.
After all, it is precisely the inadequate susceptibility of NS that is one of the main reasons for the formation of a stress response and the development of most chronic diseases.
For most people who do not have the skills of mental self-regulation and control of their thinking, the cerebral cortex has many stagnant foci of stress arousal. Normally, the NS should get rid of them during deep inhibition during certain phases of night sleep, but if the NS self-regulation is impaired, this does not happen. Here relaxation can help – with its help a person is immersed in a state of controlled inhibition., thanks to which it can rest in 30 minutes, as in 2-3 hours of sleep.
Impact on mental state
Changes in the cognitive sphere. The ability to concentrate increases, the threshold of sensitivity to various stimuli decreases.
Emotional changes. Negative strong emotional reactions (rage, fear, irritation, etc.) appear less often and less pronounced, or they may disappear altogether. This effect is associated with a general decrease in the level of mental arousal due to a decrease in the level of physiological reactions – a relaxed person feels balanced.
Contraindications and side effects of relaxation techniques and methods
When using relaxation techniques in mentally healthy people, the following side effects can be observed:
– manifestation of a feeling of fear;
– increased muscle tension;
– the occurrence of excessive weakness (a sharp drop in pressure, dizziness);
– increased heart rate;
Such side effects are rare and usually appear in connection with the presence of a traumatic situation in the past.
– bronchial asthma (beginners should avoid exercising when the disease manifests itself in an acute form);
– diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (especially acute form);
– diseases of the cardiovascular system (for example, heart disease);
– diseases accompanied by seizures (such as epilepsy).
Since in people with these diseases, classes can provoke another acute attack of the disease, it is recommended to abandon the use of relaxation techniques until the child’s condition stabilizes and a long-term remission is achieved.
In the presence of mental (especially organic) disorders, there are also contraindications to the use of relaxing techniques.
Relaxation techniques are recommended (with caution):
– depressive disorders can be used relaxation techniques only during remission;
– disorders associated with increased psychophysical activity, mobility.
3. The main place in the development of a preschooler, and indeed of a person in general, is health.
Psychosomatic symptoms appear at an increasingly early age. This is due to the accelerating pace of life, as well as the reduction in the number of opportunities for good rest. Some children and adults with a weak nervous system become neurotic due to the fact that their psychophysiology “does not keep up” with the general rhythm of life in society.
Health is a full-fledged “attribute” of success. The success of a person largely depends on the level of his emotional and volitional self-control.
Emotional-volitional self-control is control not only of one’s own behavior, but also of one’s desires, interests, needs, and emotions. It is believed that the level of emotional and volitional self-control in childhood affects success in adulthood.
In children with a low level of self-control, one can often observe increased moodiness, hysteria, unwillingness to give in, a high level of aggressiveness and conflict in relations with loved ones as a reaction to the parents’ attempt to limit the realization of children’s desires.
– when adapting to kindergarten;
– when parents demand too much, not seeing the capabilities of their child;
– when parents devote too little / a lot of time to children (hypo and hyper control);
– when the child feels the parent’s worries (problems at work, in the family …).
In each of these situations, the child can feel fear, anxiety, dissatisfaction with himself, his life. Each child is individual, each responds to psycho-emotional stress in different ways, for example, some close, hiding in impenetrable armor, leaving for their own world, others begin to grimace, pretending that they “don’t care about anything,” etc. All these are prerequisites for development negative life scenario in a child. That is why the child needs self-relaxation skills.
Children really like doing relaxation exercises, because they have elements of the game. They, unlike adults, quickly learn the difficult ability to relax.
By learning how to relax, every child gets what they previously lacked. This applies equally to any mental process: cognitive, emotional or volitional. In the process of relaxation, the body redistributes energy in the best possible way and tries to bring the body to balance and harmony.
By relaxing, agitated restless children gradually become more balanced, attentive, and patient. Children who are inhibited, constrained, lethargic and timid acquire confidence, vigor, freedom in expressing their feelings and thoughts. This systemic work allows the child’s body to release excess stress and restore balance, thereby preserving mental health.
Relaxation with children can be successfully done through different techniques:
AUTO TRAINING is a psycho therapeutic method based on maximum mental and muscle relaxation, combined with self-hypnosis.
Self-hypnosis is carried out using certain verbal formulations that help induce muscle relaxation. Auto-training sessions can be carried out both individually and in groups. An educator can do auto-training with children, there are several necessary rules:
1. Training should be carried out as often as possible. Group lessons at least once a week.
2. The duration of the exercise is 15-30 minutes.
3. The text of auto-training should be read calmly and slowly. It is necessary to pronounce all the words in a soft, calm, even and quiet voice, make long pauses, when naming body parts, you can touch, stroke them (if the child does not mind). When exercising, you can move around the room, approach restless, disinhibited children and touch them.
4. Music helps to achieve relaxation quickly.
5. For preschoolers, it is necessary to repeat some formulations 2-3 times.
6. Before starting training, it is necessary to learn all parts of the body with preschoolers so that children do not confuse them.
7. Recommended postures: lying on the floor, “coachman” posture, “embryo” posture.
8. The main condition is the psychological balance of the leader.
There are non-specific methods and techniques of auto-training that are used when working with children: fairy tales, stories, poems.
PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION is an auxiliary relaxation psycho therapeutic method that allows you to improve bodily perception, strengthen bodily consciousness, helping to learn the boundaries of perception and become aware of them. In the course of performing VUR exercises, with the help of concentration, the ability to capture muscle tension and relaxation is first formed; then the skill of voluntary relaxation of muscle groups is practiced.
All muscles are divided into 16 groups. The sequence is as follows: from the muscles of the upper extremities to the muscles of the lower extremities.
A.V. Alekseev recommended, for the convenience of teaching voluntary tension and relaxation of body muscles, to divide all muscles into five separate groups: muscles of the legs, arms, trunk, neck and face. Children’s attention should be drawn sequentially and separately to each muscle group. You should proceed to training a new muscle group when the previous muscle group becomes “obedient”. (For a teacher, PMR can be used in the aspect of psycho-gymnastic exercises.)
Children from 4-5 years old can feel the difference between muscle tension and relaxation in the process of performing exercises. Children are able to perceive these exercises consciously and they quickly develop sensitivity to bodily processes.Stories, fairy tales and stories can be used in the process of doing progressive muscle relaxation.
Children can “travel” through their bodies by straining or relaxing certain muscle groups. During the “travel” with the performance of relaxing exercises, children must be carefully verbally guided and commented on all the details of the exercise. Children do not exert as many muscle groups as adults. Exercises usually begin with the face or palms of the hands, since the tension in these regions is easier to feel. Then you should go to the shoulder, buttocks, legs and feet.
When working with children, it is necessary to pay attention to the following important points:
1. It is very important to initially explain and demonstrate the exercise.
2. The trainer’s comments during the exercises are very important.
3. Children should hold muscle tension for a minimum of two and a maximum of five seconds (does not relax / clog up, cramp)
4. Closed eyes are desirable during exercise.
5. The resting phase lasts at least 30 seconds – during this time, the relaxed part cannot be moved and you need to feel relaxation, therefore, during this phase, the coach continues to comment.
CHILDREN’S YOGA (Yoga – instructor. Basics of teaching.) Is a method of maintaining health based on the principles of hatha yoga and developed taking into account the physical, physiological and psychological characteristics of the child.
Yoga fully satisfies the most important need for children – the need for movement. In motion, children are constantly making new discoveries, learning about their own body.
Children between the ages of 2 and 6 are very mobile, active and most susceptible. The yoga exercises offered by him are very similar to the game. Learning takes place through imitation of the leader. Asanas (yoga postures) are named according to what they look like (plants, animals): “tree”, “beetle”, “hare”, “cat”. This develops not only memory, observation, but also the imagination of the child.
Games based on neuromuscular relaxation
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. All children and an adult are sitting on the carpet. Host: “We are sitting in a clearing, the sun is warmly warming. We breathe calmly – inhale, exhale. Suddenly an ant climbed onto his toes. Pull the socks firmly towards you. the legs are straight and tense. Listen to which finger the ant is sitting on, hold your breath. Let’s throw the ant off its legs, exhale the air. Socks down, feet to the sides, legs are relaxed, resting “(Repeat several times)
” Ice cream “
Carrying out procedure. Children are standing on the carpet. They are invited to play ice cream. Host: “You are ice cream. You just got out of the fridge. Ice cream is hard as a stone. Your arms are tense, your body is icy. But then the sun warmed up, the ice cream began to melt. Your body, arms, legs have become soft, relaxed. The arms hung limply along the body … ”
” Smile “
Procedure. Children are shown a picture with a smiling sun. Host: “Look how beautiful the sun is, it smiles broadly for you. Let’s smile back at the sun. Feel how the smile goes into your hands, reaches your palms. Smile again and try to smile wider. Your lips stretch, your cheeks tighten. Breathe and smile. Your arms and hands are filled with the smiling power of the sun. ”
“Catch the butterfly”
Purpose: neuromuscular relaxation through the alternation of strong tension and rapid relaxation ”
Procedure. The presenter shows a flying butterfly, tries to catch it – he performs grasping movements above his head with one hand, then with the other, with both hands simultaneously. Children repeat the movements shown. Then they slowly unclench their fists, see if they caught the butterfly or not. Then open palms are connected, imagining that they are holding her.
Purpose: to relieve psycho-emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. Host: You are playing in a sunny meadow. Suddenly a cold wind blew. You feel cold, you are cold, grab yourself with handles, press your head against the handles – you are warming up. Warmed up, relaxed. But then the cold wind blew again .. “(children repeat the steps)
” Magpie-crow “
Procedure. Children sit in pairs on chairs, say the nursery rhyme words and take turns massaging each other’s fingers, starting with the thumb and ending with the little finger, and at the end of the nursery rhyme they stroke each other’s palms.
The crow-magpie cooked porridge, The
crow-crow fed the children,
It gave it, and it gave it,
And it gave it, and it gave it.
And to the smallest –
From a large bowl
Yes with a large spoon.
I fed everyone!
“The plane is flying, the plane is resting”
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress by alternating strong tension and rapid muscle relaxation.
Carrying out procedure. The presenter invites the guys to fly. But first, they must turn into fast airplanes.
Children raise their hands like wings, strain them (because strong wings are needed for the airplane to fly). Standing still, children depict airplanes (the purpose of the exercise is to strain and relax their hands), buzz with “motors”, move “wings”, then lower them relaxed – the airplanes have arrived, the wings are tired and want to rest.
“Play with a scarf”
Purpose: relieve facial muscle tension.
Carrying out procedure. An adult says: “Imagine that you are cold, you are frozen, wrapped your arms around yourself. But then my mother came and brought a scarf. You have tied scarves around your necks. They turned their heads from side to side: good, warm to the necks, smiled at each other.
Purpose: stress relief.
Carrying out procedure. The host says: “You are bear cubs, and I am a mother bear. I will throw bumps at you (the leader imitates the appropriate movement). You will catch them (the presenter shows what needs to be done) and squeeze them with force in your paws. Kids are playing. Host: “But the cubs are tired and drop their legs along the body – the legs are resting. And the mother-bear again throws cones to the cubs .. ”
” Lemon “
Purpose: relieving psycho-emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. The presenter invites the children to imagine that they have a lemon in their right hand. From which you need to squeeze the juice. Children squeeze their right hand in a fist as much as possible, then relax it. A similar exercise is performed with the left hand. The children then sit on chairs and drink an imaginary juice.
Purpose: to relieve psycho-emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. The host invites everyone to sleep and rest. Children gather in a circle, squat down, close their eyes. Host (after a few seconds): “So we woke up, stretched sweetly”. Children open their eyes, stand up slowly, stretch their arms forward, then raise them up, take them behind their heads and rise on their toes. Host: “We stretched sweetly, smiled at each other.” Children stand on their feet, put their hands down.
Meditation games CONDUCT ONLY BY A PSYCHOLOGIST
“In the meadow” (performed to relaxation music)
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. Psychologist “Imagine a forest clearing on which a soft grass-ant grows. Let’s lie down on her like on a feather bed. Everything around is calm and quiet, you breathe evenly and easily. A field flower bows its head over you, you can hear the singing of birds, chirping of grasshoppers.
You feel the gentle rays of the sun stroking your forehead, cheeks, touching your hands, stroking your body (pause – the psychologist strokes the children, passing from one child to another). The rays are stroking … (name of the child), caressing … (name of the next child, etc.). You are good, pleased. Now stretch and for the count of three, open your eyes. You had a wonderful rest. ”
“Balloons” (performed to relaxation music)
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. Psychologist “You are all balloons, very beautiful and funny. You are being inflated, and you become lighter and lighter. Your whole body becomes light, weightless. And the handles are light, and the legs are light-light. The balloons rise higher and higher.
A warm, gentle breeze is blowing, it gently blows each ball … (pause – the psychologist strokes the children, passing from one child to another). Blowing a balloon … (name of the child), caressing the balloon … (name of the next child, etc.). It’s easy for you, calm. You fly where the gentle breeze blows. But now it’s time to return home. You are in this room again. Stretch and on the count of three, open your eyes. Smile at your balloon. ”
“Stream” (you will need to record the murmur of water, noise of the forest)
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. Psychologist: “You are lying near a small river in the forest. Listen to the quiet murmur and splash of water in the stream. The water in the stream is clean, clear and cool. The brook murmurs quietly, like your breath. Listen to your breathing, inhale slowly, exhale. You feel calm and warm. It is quiet around, only the murmur of water and the rustle of the wind can be heard. The water from the stream will shower you with gentle splashes.
Your hands become warm from the magic spray, the whole body becomes light from the touch of water. You are filled with the murmur of an affectionate stream … (pause – the psychologist strokes the children, passing from one child to another). The brook stroked … (name of the child), and … (name of the next child, etc.) stroked. The murmur calms you down. It’s easy and calm for you … but it’s time to leave. Stretch and on the count of three, open your eyes. Smile at the gentle stream. ”
Purpose: to relieve emotional stress.
Carrying out procedure. Children lie down on the carpet. Psychologist: “Today you did a lot, played a lot, and you are probably tired. I suggest you be a little lazy. You are lazy and luxuriate on a soft, soft carpet. It is quiet and calm around, you breathe easily and freely. A sense of peace and relaxation encompasses your entire body. You are resting calmly, you are lazy.
Your hands are resting, your legs are resting … (pause – the psychologist strokes the children, passing from one child to another). Hands rest at … (child’s name), legs rest at … (next child’s name, etc.) a pleasant warmth covers your body, you are too lazy to move, you are pleased. Your breathing is completely calm. Your arms, legs, whole body are relaxed. A sense of pleasant peace fills you from within. You are resting, you are lazy. Pleasant laziness spreads all over the body.
You enjoy complete peace and relaxation, which brings you strength and good mood … stretch, shake off laziness and on the count of three, open your eyes. You feel well rested, you are in a cheerful mood. ”
“Quiet hour for mice” (game with elements of meditation)
Carrying out procedure. The psychologist invites children to turn into mice and show them how they have dinner – bite off a piece of cheese; stroking their tummies – they are full; show with a sleepy squeak that they want to sleep. Then the baby mice lay down on the sleeping mat.
Music for relaxation is turned on for 1-2 minutes (each time you can increase the time), children lie and listen to music. On the count of three, all the little mice turn into obedient children. Psychologist: “Open your eyes, you are rested and you are in a good mood.”
Relaxation games by alternating rhythmic breathing and breathing with a delay “Let’s warm the butterfly”
Purpose: to achieve relaxation through breathing techniques.
Carrying out procedure. Children sit in a circle on chairs. The presenter shows an imaginary butterfly, says that it is frozen and cannot take off. Offers to warm her with your breath. Children breathe on their palms (while teaching this breathing exercise , the psychologist may ask the children to open their mouths wide and make a long sound “A”).
The presenter says that the butterfly has warmed up and should be blown off the palm. Children take several deep breaths through the nose and out through the mouth. As you exhale, the lips are pulled out with a tube, their palms are placed under the cold streams of air (at the initial stage of mastering this exercise, you can invite children to utter a long sound “U” as they exhale).
Purpose: to develop in children the ability to relax the abdominal muscles.
Carrying out procedure. Children stand in a circle. Host: “I have a balloon in my hands. See how I’m going to inflate it (inflates a real balloon and then deflates it). And now we will imagine that the balloon is in our stomach and we have to inflate it. Place your hand on your stomach.
The balloon is not inflated now. Now we draw air into it, inflate the tummy, as if it were a big balloon. Feel it growing with a pen. Now let’s exhale and blow off the tummy. Fine! Let’s do it one more time. Inhale – exhale, one more inhale – exhale. Well done! ”
“Watch” (monotonous hand movements inhibit negative emotions)
Purpose: relieve psycho-emotional stress through breathing techniques, create a positive emotional background.
Carrying out procedure. Host: “Guys, have you seen the watch? Who has them? Do you want us to show you the watch today? Stand up straight, spread your legs slightly so that the car can pass between them, lower Cookies. Mom started the watch, and it started ticking: “Tick-tock.” Swing your straight arms back and forth. The watch got tired, stopped, resting … Mom started the watch again, and it started ticking again. ” Children and the presenter wave their hands, say: “Tick-tock.”
Purpose: to relieve psycho-emotional stress through breathing techniques.
Carrying out procedure. Host: “Mom put the porridge to cook and left. And the porridge was cooked and boiled. Do you know how porridge boils? Let’s show. We put one handle on the tummy, the other on the chest. Pulled in the tummy – took in air. We say loudly: “F-F-F” – stuck out the tummy. This is how the porridge boils! ”
Relaxation through breathing:
Purpose: to relax the muscles of the lower part of the face and hands.
“You and a friend had a fight. A fight is about to begin. Take a deep breath, clench your jaws tightly. Fingers in your fists, press your fingers into your palms until painful. Hold your breath for a few seconds. Think: maybe you shouldn’t fight? and relax. Hooray! Trouble behind! ”
This exercise is useful not only with anxious, but also with aggressive children.
Purpose: to relieve tension, calm children.All players are standing or sitting in a circle. The presenter gives the instruction: “Imagine that now we are going to inflate the balloons. Inhale the air, bring the imaginary balloon to your lips and, inflating your cheeks, slowly inflate it through parted lips.
Watch your eyes as your balloon grows larger and more, as the patterns on it increase, grow. Have you imagined? I also presented your huge balls. Blow carefully so that the ball does not burst. Now show them to each other. ” The exercise can be repeated 3 times.
Children stand in a circle, the teacher is with them. At his signal, all players take a deep breath to make their stomach “inflated”, bend one leg, lean forward slightly and start counting to eight, until the stomach “goes down” – exhale. Air must be spent gradually.
The count (one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight) is repeated until the breath ends. The child may fizzle out for a count of five on the second rep. In this case, as soon as he feels that his stomach has “gone down”, he lowers his leg and waits for the others to finish counting.
As soon as all children stop counting, the teacher again gives a signal and repeats the exercise. It can be repeated until the children begin to repeat the count several times up to eight for one breath.
The facilitator makes sure that the children count clearly.
Relaxation through tension. Alternately, we tighten on inhalation and also relax on exhalation (slowly). We clench our fingers into a fist, clench our teeth, muscles in our legs are brought to a convulsion.
Control. ” Gymnastic ball ” – the children are invited to beat the ball with all their might, to imagine that it is an evil green Serpent Gorynych or a Green crocodile that swallowed the sun.
Purpose: to relax the muscles of the arms. “Guys, I want to ask you a riddle:
We have a
White nail hanging under our roof , the
Sun will rise, the
Nail will fall. (V. Seliverstov)
That’s right, it’s an icicle. Let’s imagine that we are artists and we are putting on a play for kids. The announcer (this is me) reads this riddle to them, and you will pretend to be icicles. When I read the first two lines, you breathe in and raise your arms above your head, and on the third, fourth, drop your relaxed arms down. So, we are rehearsing … And now we are performing. It turned out great! ”
Exercise.” Barbell “
Purpose: to relax the muscles of the back.
” Now we will be weightlifters. Imagine there is a heavy barbell on the floor. Inhale, lift the bar off the floor on outstretched arms, lift it up. Very hard. Exhale, drop the barbell to the floor, rest. Let’s try again. ”
Purpose: to relax the muscles of the arms and back, to enable the child to feel successful.
“Now let’s take a lighter barbell and lift it over our head. We took a breath, raised the barbell, fixed this position so that the judges would count you a victory. It’s hard to stand like that, drop the barbell, exhale. Relax. Hurray! You are all champions. You can bow to the audience. Everyone’s clapping for you, bow again like champions. ” The exercise can be performed several times.
Relaxation through visualization.
Visualization is about creating and manipulating visualizations. What is the purpose of visualization in psychology? When we begin to visualize something (no matter what), the subconscious mind is filled with all this and understands it as a request “I want!” As one psychotherapist said: I’m glad for your fantasies, because these are your desires.
You can (and should!) Visualize your fears, horrors, injuries and problems.
Especially if the problem cannot be visualized “as it were”. Try it! Become a cartoonist for five minutes and try to imagine, for example, your headache. What can be seen is easier to fight.
Control. “Yellow mouse” – to train the skills to visualize:
“Imagine, guys, that our group has a yellow mouse that can run not only on the floor, but also on the walls! Now she has come running to us and is sitting in this right corner. Oh, now she has already run to another corner, climbed under the closet. And now she has a yellow mouse, and so on. mice move in the space of the group, which children first follow with open eyes.
Games with clothespins (clenching the muscles of the hands inhibits negative emotions)
“Games with clothespins”
Procedure. The presenter shows the children clothespins and talks about their purpose in everyday life, suggests playing with them – shows how you can attach a clothespin to the box paradise with three fingers, accompanying the actions with the words:
Our mother is tired,
she washed all her clothes,
I will help my dear mother,
I will collect all the clothespins.
(children repeat the text and movements behind the presenter)
Then the presenter shows how the clothespin can open and close the “mouth”. Further, the clothespin “turns” into a wolf:
Gray wolf – teeth click.
We are not afraid of you, wolf!
“Bunny and Dog”
Procedure. The presenter recites a famous poem and performs actions with a clothespin.
Ra, two, three, four, five –
The bunny came out for a walk. The fingers of the left hand show the “bunny”
Suddenly the hunter runs out
And lets go of the dog.
The angry dog barks, The right hand opens and closes the clothespin, depicting how the dog barks.
Bunny runs away. The left hand goes behind the back
Purpose: relieve tension, develop the communicative function of speech, develop imagination.
Carrying out procedure. Children have a clothespin in each hand. Rhythmic opening and closing of clothespins with both hands while pronouncing the text:
And the duckling: “Quack-quack!”
Everyone said, everyone asked,
Purpose: relieve tension, develop fine motor skills of hands, develop the communicative function of speech.
Carrying out procedure. The presenter rhythmically opens and closes the “mouth” of the clothespins, accompanying the actions with the recitation of a poetic text.
A cunning cheat, a red head,
Rotik opens, scares the bunnies.
(children repeat the text and movements behind the leader).
Purpose: relieve stress, develop fine motor skills of hands, develop the communicative function of speech.
At the zoo, the sparrow dined with the animals,
And the toothy crocodile almost swallowed it.
(children repeat the text and movements behind the leader).
Purpose: to relieve tension, develop fine motor skills of hands, develop the communicative function of speech.
Carrying out procedure. The presenter rhythmically opens and closes the “mouth” of the clothespins, accompanying the actions with the recitation of a poetic text:
Ha-ha-ha, – the goose cackles, –
I am proud of my family.
(children repeat the text and movements behind the leader).
Purpose: relieve tension, develop fine motor skills of hands, develop the communicative function of speech.
Carrying out procedure. The children and the presenter are sitting at the tables, each holding one clothespin, elbows on the table. The presenter accompanies the actions with a clothespin with text. Children repeat the text and movements behind the leader.
The bird moved its beak, The hand with the clothespin turns from side to side The
bird has found the grains, The other hand shows the palm with imaginary grains The
bird has eaten the grains, Pinching the palm with the clothespin The
bird sang a song. The clothespin rhythmically opens and closes the “mouth” – it sings.
The presenter and the children hum : “La-la-la”.
Purpose: relieve tension, develop fine motor skills of the hands, consolidate sensory skills, develop the communicative function of speech.
Carrying out procedure. Children and the presenter are sitting at the tables. Each of them has one clothespin and candy wrappers in their hands, twisted into “candy”. The presenter accompanies the actions with a clothespin by pronouncing a poetic text. Children repeat the text and movements behind the leader.
The stupid crow
Saw the paper The clothespin rhythmically opens and closes its “mouth”
Like its grip.
I thought candy,
It turned out … candy wrapper Tilt the brush with a clothespin to the table, grab the wrapper.
Purpose: to relieve tension, develop the communicative function of speech, develop imagination.
Carrying out procedure.The presenter rhythmically opens and closes the clothespin with both hands while pronouncing the text.
Two little ones rook
All day in the nest screaming.
Rooks open their mouths:
They really want to eat.
(children repeat the text and movements behind the leader).
Modern preschoolers are sometimes as busy as adults. Attending kindergarten, various circles, they receive a lot of information, get tired physically and emotionally. After all, you need to be in time everywhere!
Such loads negatively affect the health of children. Therefore, it is so important to use relaxation exercises when working with preschoolers.
It is necessary to learn how to relax and use the means of relaxation and meditation to deal with “overload”.
Relaxation of preschool children requires a special look and approach. The main thing is to use it correctly and skillfully.
To form the emotional stability of the child, it is important to teach him how to control his body.
Relaxation – deep muscle relaxation accompanied by the release of mental stress.
The ability to relax allows you to eliminate anxiety, agitation, stiffness, restores strength, helps to concentrate attention, and increases the supply of energy.
For this purpose, when working with children, you need to use specially selected exercises to relax certain parts of the body and the whole body.
Children like these exercises very much, because they have an element of play.
Each exercise is given a figurative name, it captivates children. They perform relaxing exercises, not just imitating the leader, but reincarnating, entering a given image. Most children perceive these exercises correctly, relax well.
Experience shows that as a result of the use of relaxation, many children get better sleep, they become more balanced and calm.
We can offer you an electronic version of the relaxation game card.
Today, several groups of relaxation methods can be distinguished, each of which is distinguished by a rich content of various methods, both individual and group.
- Relaxation techniques related to the body.
complete relaxation of the various muscles of the body.
With muscle relaxation, we relax and calm a large area of the cerebral cortex. These are exercises to relax the muscles of the face, hands and feet.
The second most important relaxation technique associated with the physical body is sleep. Timely, proper sleep could be called the best means of rest, relaxation and complete recuperation. By the way, relaxation exercises can be performed immediately before bedtime, which will provide a deeper relaxation of all body systems.
It is advisable to include “relaxation pauses” in the kindergarten day regimen.
Exercises for muscle relaxation in contrast to tension, can be used as a physical education minute in the classroom, at any regime moment during the day;
Muscle relaxation exercises on presentation can be done once a day, after a day’s walk (before bedtime).
Since some of the children experience a deficit of positive tactile sensations, elements of tactile interaction between the presenter and the child (“the breeze strokes you”) are introduced into the mood plot. It has a positive effect on the relaxation response.
Breathing relaxation techniques.
Breathing is the most important process in the human body. Therefore, it is especially important for every person to master the technique of deep, or full breathing, when not only the chest , but also the lower abdomen is involved in the process of inhaling and exhaling . With such full breathing, the body automatically reaches a state of relaxation, thoughts are ordered, and anxiety disappears.
Relaxation techniques related to art.
One of the main tasks of art is to give joy and peace to the soul. The relaxation effect can be achieved by listening to specially selected music, watching paintings, photographs of natural landscapes, videos, etc.
The relaxation learning process according to the proposed system is conventionally divided into three stages:
1 – stage – muscle relaxation in contrast to tension;
2 – stage – muscle relaxation by presentation; instilling peace and relaxation;
3 – stage – the suggestion of muscle and emotional relaxation, the introduction of correct speech formulas.
At the first stage, the teacher explains to the children what a resting posture is, what is the purpose of the first game, and describes the necessary actions. The guys do not repeat the text of the rhymes aloud.
The intonation, the slow pace of the presenter’s speech should contribute to the presentation of pleasant sensations from muscle relaxation, create an idea of rest and calmness. Each relaxation session begins with a resting pose. At the end of the first stage, children are expected to learn to relax the muscles of the arms, legs, neck and abdomen.
At the second stage, you can move on to relaxing the muscles of the speech apparatus and suggestion formulas, which reinforce the feeling of relaxation and calmness. The teacher’s voice should be quiet, soothing, speech – clear, unhurried. After each stanza, the semantic pauses are somewhat lengthened. The logical accents sound clear. Suggestion is most effective if the leader himself causes the same sensations. which he achieves in children.
Practice has shown: the exit from the state of relaxation should always be the same and gradual. Therefore, especially at first, children should be reminded: “To follow the commands exactly, do not open your eyes ahead of time.” The last phrases (removing from the state of relaxation) are pronounced loudly, cheerfully and a little faster.
By the end of the second stage, the educator evokes in children a figurative idea of relaxation and tranquility: it is suggested to remember how they sunbathed on the river bank, lay on the grass, felt the warmth of the sun’s rays. In order to enhance the state of relaxation, in the suggestion session, a comparison is introduced such as “as if we are lying on the grass, on green, soft grass …”.
In the third stage, relaxation in contrast to tension is excluded. Muscle relaxation is triggered only by suggestion.
When using relaxation techniques, it is important to adhere to the technique of gradual transition to a state of relaxation.
Stage 1: Lie comfortably and relax.
Stage 2: Feel and “examine” your whole body with your mind’s eye, causing a feeling of warmth, and sequentially “examining” all its parts: head, arms, legs, torso. It is advisable to close your eyes.
Stage 3: Feeling of pleasant warmth, pleasure, peace, comfort from a relaxed body.
Introductory part before each mood:
Children lie down on the carpet, make themselves comfortable. The arms are extended along the body, relaxed. Legs are straight, not crossed. Quiet calm music plays.
Leading. “Lie down comfortably. Close your eyes. We breathe calmly and evenly. Let us rest our legs and arms, stretch them out and relax them. Let’s keep quiet and listen to the sounds around us … (pause). Listen to your breathing … (pause) Breathing is even and calm. Allow your body to relax and rest … (pause). Listen to what I want to tell you … ”
Systemic work allows the child’s body to release excess stress and restore balance, thereby preserving mental health.
Imagine that you are all balloons, very beautiful and funny. You are being inflated, and you become lighter and lighter. Your whole body becomes light, weightless. And the handles are light, and the legs are light, light. The balloon rises higher and higher. A warm gentle breeze is blowing, it gently blows each ball … (pause – stroking the children). Blowing on the ball …, caressing the ball …
It’s easy for you, calmly. You fly where the gentle breeze blows. But now it’s time to return home. You are in this room again. Stretch and on the count of three, open your eyes. Smile at your balloon.
Imagine a warm summer evening. You lie on the grass and look at the clouds floating in the sky – such white, large, fluffy clouds in the blue sky. Everything around is quiet and calm, you are warm and comfortable. With each breath and exhale, you begin to slowly and smoothly rise into the air, higher and higher, to the very clouds. Your arms are light, light, your legs are light, your whole body becomes as light as a cloud.
Now you swim up to the largest and fluffiest, to the most beautiful cloud in the sky. Closer and closer. And now you are already lying on this cloud, you feel how it gently strokes you, this fluffy and gentle cloud … (pause – stroking the children). Strokes …, strokes … You feel good and pleasant. You are relaxed and calm. But then a cloud dropped you into the clearing. Smile at your cloud. Stretch and on the count of three, open your eyes. You were well rested on the cloud.
Relaxation exercises focusing on breathing:
Blow out the candle.
Inhale deeply, drawing as much air into your lungs as possible. Then, stretching out your lips with a tube, exhale slowly, as if blowing on a candle, while pronouncing the sound “y” for a long time.
Raise your arms up, then stretch forward, stretch like a kitty. Feel how the body stretches. Then sharply lower your hands down, pronouncing the sound “a”.
Relaxation exercises to relieve tension from facial muscles
Imagine that you see a beautiful sun in front of you in the picture, whose mouth spreads into a wide smile. Smile back to the sun and feel how the smile goes into your hands, reaches your palms. Do it again and try to smile wider. Your lips stretch, your cheek muscles tighten … Breathe and smile …, your hands and palms are filled with the smiling power of the sun (repeat 2-3 times).
Imagine that a sunbeam looks into your eyes. Close them. He ran further across the face. Carefully stroke it with your palms: on the forehead, on the nose, on the mouth, on the cheeks, on the chin. Stroke gently so as not to frighten off, head, neck, tummy, arms, legs. He climbed into the collar – stroke him there too. He is not a mischievous person – he catches and caresses you, and you stroke him and make friends with him (repeat 2-3 times).
Imagine a warm summer day. Your face is tanning, your nose is also tanning – put your nose to the sun, your mouth is half-open. A butterfly flies, chooses whose nose to sit on. Wrinkle your nose, raise your upper lip up, leave your mouth half-open (holding your breath). Chasing the butterfly, you can energetically move your nose. The butterfly flew away. Relax the muscles of the lips and nose (as you exhale) (repeat 2-3 times).
Imagine a warm summer day. Your face tans, the gentle sun strokes you (facial muscles are relaxed). But then a butterfly flies and sits on your eyebrows. She wants to swing like on a swing. Let the butterfly swing on the swing. Move your eyebrows up and down. The butterfly flew away, and the sun warms up (relaxation of the facial muscles) (repeat 2-3 times).
Neck muscle relaxation exercises:
Starting position: standing, feet shoulder-width apart, arms down, head straight. Turn your head as far as possible to the left, then to the right. Inhale, exhale. The movement is repeated 2 times in each direction. Then return to the starting position, relax the muscles:
Curious Varvara looks to the left, looks to the right.
And then again forward – there will be a little rest.
Raise your head up, look at the ceiling as long as possible. Then return to the starting position, relax the muscles:
Comes back – relaxation is pleasant!
Slowly lower your head down, press your chin to your chest. Then return to the starting position, relax the muscles:
Now let’s look down – the neck muscles have tensed!
We come back – relaxation is pleasant!
Relaxation exercises to relieve tension from the muscles of the trunk, arms, legs “Sleeping kitten”
Imagine that you are funny, mischievous kittens. Kittens walk, arch their backs, wag their tails. But the kittens got tired … they started yawning, lie down on the mat and fall asleep. Kittens’ tummies evenly rise and fall, they breathe calmly (repeat 2 – 3 times).
“Cold – hot”
Imagine that you are playing in a sunny meadow. Suddenly a cold wind blew. You feel cold, you are frozen, wrapped your arms around yourself, pressed your head against your hands – you are warming yourself. Warmed up, relaxed … But then the cold wind blew again … (repeat 2-3 times).
“The sun and the cloud”
Imagine that you are sunbathing in the sun. But then the sun went down behind a cloud, it became cold – everyone squeezed into a ball to keep warm (hold their breath). The sun came out from behind a cloud, it became hot – everyone relaxed (as they exhaled). Repeat 2-3 times.
Exercises to relax arm muscles:
Put your hands down and imagine that there is a lemon in your right hand, from which you need to squeeze juice. Slowly clench your right hand into a fist as much as possible. Feel how the right hand is tense. Then drop the “lemon” and relax your hand:
I’ll take a lemon in my palm.
I feel that it is round.
I squeeze it slightly –
I squeeze lemon juice.
It’s okay, the juice is ready.
I throw the lemon, relax my hand.
Perform the same exercise with your left hand.
Guys, I’ll ask you a riddle: Under our roof
The white nail is hanging
The sun will rise,
The nail will drip and fall.
That’s right, it’s an icicle. Let’s imagine that we are artists and we stage performances for kids. The announcer (that’s me) reads the riddle to them, and you will pretend to be icicles. When I read the first two lines, you breathe in and raise your arms above your head, and on the third and fourth lines, drop your relaxed arms down. So, let’s rehearse. Now let’s go. It turned out great!
Exercises to relax leg muscles:
Imagine yourself on a ship. Shakes. In order not to fall, you need to spread your legs wider and press them to the floor. Clasp your hands behind your back. The deck swung – transfer the body weight to the right leg, press it to the floor (the right leg is tense, the left leg is relaxed, a little bent at the knee, the toe touches the floor). Straighten up. Relax your leg. Swung in the other direction – to press the left leg to the floor. Straighten up! Inhale, exhale!
The deck began to swing! Press your foot to the deck!
Press the leg tighter, and relax the other.
Our legs flashed
We will ride along the path.
But be careful,
Don’t forget what to do!
Relaxation exercises for the whole body:
Children imagine that each of them is a snow woman. Huge, beautiful, which was molded from snow. She has a head, a torso, two arms sticking out to the sides, and she stands on strong legs. Beautiful morning, the sun is shining. Here it begins to bake, and the snow woman begins to melt. Further, the children depict how the snow woman melts. First the head melts, then one hand, the other. Gradually, little by little, the body begins to melt. The snow woman turns into a puddle spread over the ground.
Children imagine that they are little birds. They fly through the fragrant summer forest, inhale its aromas and admire its beauty. So they sat down on a beautiful wildflower and breathed in its light scent, and now they flew to the tallest linden tree, sat on its top and felt the sweet scent of a blossoming tree. But a warm summer breeze blew, and the birds, along with its gust, rushed to the murmuring forest stream. Sitting on the edge of the stream, they brushed their feathers with their beak, drank clean, cool water, splashed and again rose upward. And now we will land in the most comfortable nest in a forest clearing.
Children lie on the rugs on their backs, arms extended along the body, legs straight, slightly apart.
Psychologist: “Close your eyes and listen to my voice. Breathe easily and calmly. Imagine that you are in a meadow on a beautiful summer day. In front of you, you see a gorgeous butterfly fluttering from flower to flower. Follow the movement of her wings. The movements of her wings are light and graceful. Now let everyone imagine that he is a butterfly, that he has beautiful and large wings.
Feel your wings moving slowly and smoothly up and down. Enjoy the feeling of floating slowly and smoothly in the air. Now take a look at the colorful meadow you are flying over. See how many bright colors it has. Find the brightest flower with your eyes and gradually begin to approach it. Now you can smell your flower. Slowly and smoothly, you sit on the soft, fragrant center of the flower. Breathe in its scent again … open your eyes.
Psychologist: “Lie in a comfortable position. Stretch out and relax. Now close your eyes and listen to me.
Imagine a wonderful sunny morning. You are near a quiet, beautiful lake. Only your breath and the splash of water are heard. The sun is shining brightly and it makes you feel better and better. You can feel the sun’s rays warm you up. You hear the chirping of birds and the chirping of a grasshopper. You are absolutely calm. The sun is shining, the air is clean and transparent.
You feel the warmth of the sun with your whole body. You are calm and motionless, like this quiet morning. A pleasant languor overwhelms you, you feel calm and happy, you are too lazy to move. Every cell in your body enjoys peace and sunshine. You are resting…
Now we open our eyes. We are in kindergarten again , we had a good rest, we have a cheerful mood and pleasant sensations will not leave us throughout the day.
Breathing relaxation exercises.
Exercise helps you quickly calm down and pull yourself together.
Inhale, exhale slowly, then take a deep breath slowly.
Hold your breath for four seconds.
Exhale slowly again and take a deep breath slowly.
Hold your breath for four seconds and exhale.
Repeat this 6 times and you will be sure to become calmer and calm.
Exercise “Blow out the candle”
Inhale deeply, drawing in as much air as possible into your lungs.
Stretching out your lips with a tube, exhale slowly, as if blowing on a candle, while pronouncing the sound “oo-oo-oo” for a long time. Repeat the exercise 5-6 times.
Exercise “Lazy kitty”
Raise your arms up, then stretch forward, stretch like a cat. Feel the body stretching.
Bring your arms down sharply, while exhaling while uttering the sound “a!” Repeat the exercise several times.
The effect of these exercises is to calm and release tension.
Muscle relaxation exercises.
With regular exercise, tension is removed and does not accumulate, sleep, mood and performance improve. Exercises to relax the muscles of the shoulder girdle and arms are suitable for children. The exercises are repeated 5-6 times.
Exercise “Shaking water off your fingers”
The arms are bent at the elbows with the palm down, the hands hang passively. With a quick and continuous movement, shake the brushes like rags (5-10 seconds).
Before exercise, it is useful for children to clench their hands tightly into a fist, so that the difference in the tense and relaxed state of the muscles is more clearly felt.
Put your hands down and imagine that there is a lemon in your right hand, from which you need to squeeze juice.
Slowly squeeze your right hand into a fist as much as possible. Feel how tense your right hand is.
Then drop the lemon and relax your hand.
Do the same exercise with your left hand.
Exercise with children may be accompanied by the following instruction poem:
I’ll take a lemon in my palm.
I feel that it is round.
I squeeze it slightly –
I squeeze lemon juice.
It’s okay, the juice is ready.
I throw the lemon, relax my hand.
You bask in a fluffy cloud that gently envelops your body
You sway on the waves and your body feels calm and weightless
You lie on the heated sand – on the seashore or ocean, hear the light sound of waves and feel the light and warmth of the sun’s rays
You, a snowflake flying over a snowy forest.
Muscle relaxation exercises
(using visual images).
Exercise “Bird spreading its wings”
Imagine that you are a bird whose wings are tightly clenched. Connect your shoulder blades, and strain your back as hard as you can. You feel tension. Now slowly, without rushing, release your muscles. Your wings spread out, become strong and light, weightless. You feel relaxed. Repeat the exercise 5-7 times.
Imagine you have a tightly inflated balloon. You hold it in your hands. Feel its resilient surface. The ball continues to swell, you can hardly hold it, because it is torn upward. Your fingers are tense. You are holding it back with the last of your strength Imagine this ball is your problem. Let it go – let it fly. Place your hands on your knees. Close your eyes and take a deep breath and a long breath. And once again inhale and exhale long. Breathe easily and calmly. Now stretch your whole body and open your eyes.
Exercises with mental images.
Close your eyes. Concentrate on your breathing, breathe calmly and evenly, try to disconnect from the outside world. Imagine a place where you felt calm and comfortable (a clearing in a summer forest, a beach, your favorite room). Try to see it in detail. Gradually try to make the picture brighter, closer, bigger and observe the changes in your sensations, trying to achieve maximum relaxation and inner comfort. Remember this image. Each time it becomes easier for you to call it, so you can quickly enter a state of relaxation.
Meeting the sun.
Imagine that you are on the ocean. Not long ago a storm raged here, but now the wind has died down, the ocean has calmed down, and only a slight swell on its surface reminds of what was happening. The water surface becomes calmer with each passing moment. The clouds dissolve to reveal a clear and calm blue sky. You can see the edge of the orange ball peeking out from the horizon – this is the sun. Then this ball rises higher and higher.
He illuminates with his rays all nature, all living beings – people, animals, plants. Even the smallest creatures, invisible to our eyes, are illuminated by sunlight. The sun illuminates millions of people, and sends each of them his own ray. You feel how the sun’s rays penetrate directly into your chest, into your heart – the center of your living “I”. The sun is shining brighter and you literally bathe in its golden glow.
Visualize how its power penetrates and fills every cell of your body, renewing and strengthening it and giving you health and tranquility. Imagine that you will be completely saturated with golden solar energy. The sun rises higher in the sky. Imagine how its rays diverge with greatness and power to bestow their light and warmth on all humanity, all living things, including you. When the sunlight is very bright, protect your eyes by closing them slightly.
Imagine how people literally bathe in sunlight, filled with harmony and happiness. Imagine how its rays diverge with greatness and power to bestow their light and warmth on all humanity, all living things, including you. When the sunlight is very bright, protect your eyes by closing them slightly. Imagine how people literally bathe in sunlight, filled with harmony and happiness. Imagine how its rays diverge with greatness and power to bestow their light and warmth on all humanity, all living things, including you.
When the sunlight is very bright, protect your eyes by closing them slightly. Imagine how people literally bathe in sunlight, filled with harmony and happiness.
Flight of the white bird.
Imagine that you are lying on warm yellow sand, with a calm, clear, blue sky above you. A white bird flies smoothly in the sky. You rise and fly beside her. You yourself are a white bird. You are flying in the blue sky, below you is the calm blue sea. A yellow sandy shore appeared in the distance; it was approaching. You fly up, land on the warm yellow sand, transform into a human again and lie on your back.
You are lying on warm yellow sand, above you is a calm blue sky, you are relaxed, relaxing.A pleasant coolness touched your feet, it filled the muscles of your legs. The muscles are light and vigorous. A pleasant coolness filled the stomach, back muscles. The muscles are light and vigorous.
A pleasant coolness filled my chest and arms. It is easier for you to breathe. A pleasant coolness filled the neck and head. The head is clear and clean. The muscles are light and vigorous. Three deep breaths you open your eyes and get up. You are rested! ”
Today we will see the amber castle. With this thought, we hurry to the blue sea. Already from afar we see a goldfish. She, jumping out of the water, glows in the sun. The goldfish invites us to sink to the seabed. This is what we most wanted today. We take a deep breath, exhale slowly. Inhale – exhale, inhale-exhale. For a few moments, we are already in the sea kingdom, and not just anywhere, but on the seabed.
We are interested in everything that surrounds us. Below us is white-white sand. It most likely looks like chalk. Rybka explains to us that the sand turns white in honor of the most honorable guests, and we understand that she means us, and breaks into a smile. A smile is not only on our lips, but everything inside of us is smiling. Our body relaxes, and we are filled with an extraordinary feeling of warmth and love. We breathe easily, evenly deeply …
We are surrounded by unprecedented pink and lilac plants: their stems and leaves are so flexible that they move from the slightest movement of water. Coral white and turquoise reefs are located to our left. These are kind of sea mountains, of such a bizarre configuration that it is difficult to take your eyes off them. We swim over them, examine them from above. Ahead of us is a brightly lit space. This is the amber castle. It glows like a thousand little suns.
And looking at him is a pleasure. This glow is directed towards us. Mysterious rays gently penetrate us and fill us with light. And we become little suns. Breathes easily, evenly, deeply. We return from the castle and give the warmth of the little sun to the people around, flowers …
Create the sun in yourself.
There is sun in nature. It shines and loves and warms everyone. Let’s create the sun in ourselves. Close your eyes, imagine a little star in your heart. We mentally direct to her a ray that carries love. We feel the asterisk expand. We direct the ray with goodness, the asterisk has become even larger. I send rays to the star that bring health, joy, warmth, light, tenderness, affection. Now the star is getting big like the sun. It brings warmth to everyone, everyone, everyone (hands to the sides).
Magic flower of goodness.
Place the flower of Goodness and Good Mood in both palms. Feel how it warms you: your hands, your body, your soul. An amazing smell and pleasant music comes from it. And you want to listen to it. Place all the goodness and good mood of this flower inside, in your heart. Feel how goodness enters you, brings you joy. You have new powers: the powers of health, happiness and joy.
You feel how your body is filled with pleasure and joy. How nice your face is, how good and joy your soul becomes. A warm, gentle breeze blows over you. You are in a kind, soul-warming mood. I want you to remember what you feel now and take with you when you leave this room. Warm feelings and the good mood will continue with you. Open your eyes .. Look around … Send each other good thoughts … All the best to you!
Travel on the cloud.
I want to invite you on a cloud journey. Jump onto a white fluffy cloud that looks like a soft mountain of plump pillows. Feel how your legs, back, butt sit comfortably on this large cloudy pillow. Now the journey begins. Our cloud slowly rises into the blue sky. Can you feel the wind blowing around your face? Here, high in the sky, everything is calm and quiet. Let the cloud take us now to a place where we will be happy. Try to mentally “see” this place as accurately as possible.
Something wonderful and magical can happen here (Pause 30 seconds) Now you are back on your cloud, and it brings everyone back. For your place in the kindergarten group. Get off the cloud and thank him for driving everyone so well. Now watch it melt slowly into the air. Stretch, straighten and be awake again
Stressful situations at work and in the family often lead a person to a bad mood and overexertion. Depression is often the result of this condition. In order to avoid such a situation, psychologists advise learning how to relax. At the same time, it is recommended to use various means of meditation and relaxation. With adults, everything is clear. And what to do if a small child is overexcited and over strained, who finds it difficult to calm down after active communication and games?
One of the problems of childhood
The child’s nervous system is far from perfect. This is especially true for babies up to three years old. It is difficult for children of this age to exercise control over the processes of inhibition and excitation of the nervous system . This may explain restless infant sleep, as well as problems with calmness after active play. First of all, this applies to excitable children.
Maintaining the correct daily routine
There are various ways you can help calm an excitable child. One of them is the organization of the wakefulness and sleep regime. Active children can be difficult to get to bed on a specific schedule. In such a situation, it is important to create conditions for a certain daily rhythm for the baby. All meals, as well as walks, are important to take at the same hours. In addition, there should be no active activities in the period that precedes the rest . Only then will the child get used to a certain regime.
Physical education and massage
Everyone knows about the benefits of these two components. However, they are often lazy or simply forget to apply massage and physical education in everyday life . Sport is especially important when raising an active child. Thanks to physical culture, the baby develops intellectually. Sport fosters personality in him. The alternation of physical and intellectual exercises or their harmonious combination is very useful for young children.
A relaxing massage is also important for the child. Knowing the technique of such manipulations, when influencing certain points, you can in a certain way control the emotional state of the baby. Massage of the pads is especially miraculous. They should be kneaded with a little effort and “draw” eights on them. The main thing is to find the moment when the child will lie down, and not try to run away in search of something to do.
Smells are powerful. Some of them are able to inspire, others, on the contrary, upset. Fragrances affect a child’s sense of smell in the same way as an adult’s body. However, not all sedatives are suitable for a little person. Chamomile, sage and roses are also used in children’s practice. But even when using them, caution is required. So, you should not apply undiluted oils directly to the skin of a child, especially if he is not yet three years old. The most harmless way to use such funds is aroma lamps.
The workload of modern preschoolers is sometimes amazing. They attend kindergarten, various circles and sports sections . Having received a lot of information, children get tired both physically and emotionally. At the same time, they need to be in time everywhere. The loads that the child’s body experiences negatively affect its health. That is why exercises for this are used in work with preschoolers?
Relaxation came to us from abroad. In the 30-40s of the last century, the technique of muscle relaxation was developed and applied by a psychologist from America E. Jacobson, as well as a neuropathologist from Germany I. Schultz. This technique is based on the fact that there is a certain relationship between our body and mind, which has long been proven by science.
It is known that in a person under stress, muscle tone increases. At the same time, there is also a feedback. Removal of mental stress is possible with a decrease in muscle tone . This is relaxation. It can be both involuntary and voluntary. The second type of relaxation is possible with certain exercises.
The meaning of relaxation
What is relaxation for children? This is the best way to relieve stress (nervous, physical and mental), as well as relaxation, which allows you to eliminate the irritation factor.
Relaxation is very beneficial for children. After completing special exercises, the child becomes calm and balanced. He becomes more aware of his feelings. for children play a big role. Babies begin to control their own actions and emotions, and also master their feelings. Relaxation allows the little person to concentrate and relieve arousal.
Muscle relaxation exercises are done by psychologists who work with children. Such classes are an element of a wellness course. But at the same time, simple playful relaxation for children can be used by educators or parents. Relaxation in this case is caused by special play techniques, each of which, as a rule, has a figurative name (this can captivate children).
Toddlers do relaxation exercises, not only copying the teacher’s movements. Children are reincarnated and enter the image given to them. New games can interest the child, which allows him to relax well. The effect of the exercise is immediately noticeable by the calm expression on the face, rhythmic and even breathing, etc.
Relaxation for preschool children is extremely important. Daily exercise included in the daily routine can help you achieve a calmer and more balanced state. In children, increased irritability and anger, excessive anxiety and fears, as well as tension are eliminated.
Muscle relaxation principle
What is E. Jacobson’s method based on? The principle of this relaxation is quite simple. It is based on the ability of muscles to relax after intense exertion. Such relaxation for preschool children is available in the simplest form of play. Exercise involves alternating tension of different muscle groups. At the same time, relaxation of the whole body is very effectively achieved, which has a beneficial effect on the body.
Many sets of exercises have been developed with the help of which relaxation is carried out. You can relax the muscles of the face and shoulder girdle, body and neck. As a rule, one or two exercises are taken from a specific block. It takes five to seven minutes to complete the entire complex.
In order to defuse the child emotionally, offer him various games. Below you can find a description of some of them.
We got together for a walk. Hurry up, keep up!
Everyone ran a little, our legs got tired.
We won’t sit for long, but then we’ll have a look.
The relaxation texts used should help the baby to create the necessary image, which will allow him to relax most effectively.
Application of special equipment
From an early age, every child is familiar with the ball. This item serves him for games and entertainment. Currently, manufacturers offer a fairly wide selection of balls, various in quality, size and color. Relatively recently, a new proposal appeared on the consumer market – a fit-ball ball, the diameter of which can be from 45 to 70 centimetres.
With its help, relaxation is carried out for preschool children. With a ball-fit-ball, kids begin to practice from four to five years. In this case, programs that produce a healing effect can be used. The main purpose of the exercises performed is:
1 strengthening of the musculoskeletal system;
2 improving the motor function of the joints;
3 creation of a strong muscle corset.
All this, in turn, allows you to develop the emotional, volitional and intellectual sphere of the child. The set of exercises used may also include those that promote relaxation and relaxation. For example, a child sits down to the side of a ball, hugs it with his left or right hand, and rests his head on it. This position should be fixed for ten to fifteen seconds.
Relaxation for preschool children can also be performed by alternating muscle tension and relaxation. The child should sit on the floor, squeezing as much as possible, and also clasping the ball with his arms and legs. This position must be maintained for eight to ten seconds. Then the child should relax.
Relaxation and music
Currently, the number of children with various forms of psycho emotional disorders has significantly increased. The reason for this is the limitation of the circle of communication of preschoolers and their concentration on computers and televisions. Music provides invaluable help in raising a baby and improving his mental health.
Even ancient healers noted her ability to heal a person from various ailments. For example, the sounds of the violin lift the mood, the flute can help with coughing, and the viola melodies eliminate neuroses.Music has a truly fantastic ability to regulate the psycho-emotional state of the child. It helps to overcome the feelings of discomfort expressed by fear, insecurity, confusion and fear.
The music of nature also contributes to this. Relaxation is achieved by listening to the rustle of leaves and birdsong, the sound of rain and the murmur of a stream. These sounds relieve your baby of worries and fears. They give him confidence and good mood. Experts recommend combining calm melodies and sounds of nature. In this case, relaxation is most effective.
Relaxing before bed
Young children love to listen to fairy tales. Parents often read them before bed. However, this does not always help to quickly lay the child down. The kid begins to make assumptions and ask many questions. To prevent this from happening, special relaxing fairy tales are needed. Relaxation for preschool children before going to bed is carried out with them.
Such tales do not have any meaning. Their plot is quite simple and very understandable for a child. The fairy tale character in such stories must always want to sleep and fall asleep in the end. The narrator’s voice is monotonous and flowing. It calms and relaxes the baby. He disconnects from his surroundings and falls asleep.
Coming up with a relaxation fairy tale is not at all difficult. You just need to follow some rules:
- the child should know well the main character of the fairy tale and love him;
2 the text of the story is compose using simple sentences;
3 repetitions of words are important to promote peace and relaxation;
4 at the end of the tale, the main character must fall asleep;
5 the voice of the narrator must be quiet.