Mixed martial arts (MMA): history, rules and types

Origion of mixed martial arts MMA

Mixed martial arts (from the English Mixed Martial Arts) is single combat that combines both techniques of percussion martial arts (boxing, kickboxing, Muay Thai, karate, wushu sanda, etc.) and wrestling techniques (judo, sambo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, freestyle, and classical wrestling, etc.)

The origins of mixed martial arts go back to antiquity, where at the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece in pankration (the prototype of modern MMA), fighters competed for the right to put the winner’s laurel wreath on their heads.

Various types of mixed martial arts have existed throughout the ages, being uniquely cultivated by martial artists even in the most remote corners of our planet.

In its modern form, mixed martial arts MMA appeared in the 90s of the last century. Popularity began to grow with the development of such world-famous organizations like the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) in the USA and the PRIDE Fighting Championship in Japan.

Today MMA is the most progressively developing type of martial arts. This is evidenced by the number of tournaments and broadcasts held in almost every country, the development of the industry of fighting halls, clothing, equipment, equipment, and the cultivation of the fighting subculture in the general population.

After World War I, mixed martial arts present in 2 directions

  • real competition under. we will call it to shoot wrestling,
  • second-stage fights, which have consistently evolved and come to modern show fights of professional wrestling.

In the 60s, the idea of ​​combining the styles was develop by the renowned Chinese American filmmaker and film actor Bruce Lee. His Jeet Kune Do system combines many of the principles and concepts of combat, which are now the basis for the technique and strategy of mixed combat. Bruce Lee with his style and especially his films influenced the development of  MMA so much that in 2004 Dana White (President of the UFC) called Bruce “the father of mixed martial arts MMA”. Of course, even before Bruce Lee, there was mix fighting styles in Japan and China.

In the USSR, mixed martial arts appeared along with combat sambo in the 20s – 30s of the XX century. The combat section of the sambo is in its essence the closest to MMA, therefore, representatives of the combat sambo (BC) successfully perform in  MMA on the world and national arenas. The most striking fighter of BS is the repeated world champion Fedor Emelianenko.

Since 1979, in the units of the special forces of the Soviet army, competitions in army hand-to-hand combat have been held, the rules of which are very similar to mixed martial arts. In modern MMA, the most prominent representative of this style is Sergey Kharitonov.Types

Types of Mixed Martial Arts MMA

Mixed martial arts MMA consists of a variety of directions that allow you to defeat the enemy in several ways. This includes:

  • Boxing
  • Karate
  • Kickboxing
  • Jujutsu
  • Thai boxing
  • Grappling

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Fundamental rules of mixed martial arts MMA

Winning method

1Opponents surrendered

2Oral surrender

3The referee declared a technical victory

4Knockdown (the opponent was unaware)

5Technical knockdown (the opponent lost the defensive ability)

6The resident doctor announced that the game could not continue

7The opponent fouled And was disqualified

8The assistant dropped the towel and abstained

Foul behavior

1Attacking the eyeballs

2Biting people

3Pulling the hair

4Opening the opponent’s mouth forcefully

5Deliberately attacking the lower yin

6Using a football kick or knee hit when the opponent hits the ground at three points

Banned drugs

Before or during the competitionthe use of any form of narcoticsstimulantstranquilizersanalgesics or alcoholic substances by the participants will cause the participants to be immediately disqualified from the competition and be disciplined according to the competition authorization committee.

Dress code

Male contestants are often required to wear shorts in addition to halfnakedMost sports committees require male contestants to wear groin protectors on their lower bodyand female contestants wear shorts and sports bras or other similar comfortable tops.

Fighting area

According to the unified rules of mixed martial artsMMA competitions or performances can be carried out in circularcircular or hexagonal fenced areas or cagesSome use ordinary nets instead of metal fencesand some use octagonal shapes.

Mixed martial arts in the USA

In the United States, the popularity of mixed fighting began to grow after 1993. The championship is organize by a businessman from California Art Davey and the head of the jujitsu school Rorion Gracie. The tournament grid consists of 8 fighters representing:

  • sumo,
  • savat,
  • boxing ,
  • karate,
  • fight.

The prize fund was modest, by today’s standards, $ 50,000.

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In Japan

In 1997, the largest MMA organization is creating in Japan. The Pride Fighting Championship (PRIDE), whose champions at different times were such world MMA stars as:

  • Fedor Emelianenko,
  • Igor Vovchanchin,
  • Mirko Krokop,
  • Mark Coleman,
  • and etc.

In the world and in Russia

In the future, various MMA organizations appeared in the world. Some of them have already ceased to exist. Others have merged with larger promotions, the rest continue to function and develop.

In Russia, MMA is not developing at the same pace as in America. There were no definite rules as such; if there was medical care, it was at a very low level. In these tournaments, the outstanding Russian fighter, multiple world champion in MMA Fyodor Emelianenko began his performances on professional sites.

Today the development of domestic MMA is hamper by the low standard of living and economy in the country. In the United States, mixed martial arts confidently hold the first place in popularity among the population; and the paid broadcasts of the tournaments of such the largest world promotion of the UFC have long broken all records and are on the same level; or even higher, with professional boxing …

Promotional business policy played a very large role in this. In 2001, the UFC is brought by the owners of the Station Casinos casino chain. Who appointed former boxing promoter Dana White as president of the company. Thanks to his influence and competent management, MMA began to develop rapidly and in 2007 the paid broadcast of the championship fight between Chuck Lid dell and Tito Ortiz broke all records and in terms of volume approached the most expensive fights in history.
After the brothers bought the main competitor PRIDE, the UFC becomes the No. 1 promotion in the world.