Mixed martial arts (MMA): history, rules and types

History of development of mixed martial arts MMA

Mixed martial arts (from the English Mixed Martial Arts) is a single combat that combines both techniques of percussion martial arts (boxing, kickboxing, Muay Thai, karate, wushu sanda, etc.) and wrestling techniques (judo, sambo, Brazilian jiu -jitsu, freestyle and classical wrestling, etc.)

The origins of mixed martial arts go back to antiquity, where at the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece in pankration (the prototype of modern mixed martial arts MMA), fighters competed for the right to put the winner’s laurel wreath on their heads.

Various types of mixed martial arts have existed throughout the ages, being uniquely cultivated by martial artists even in the most remote corners of our planet.

In its modern form, mixed martial arts MMA appeared in the 90s of the last century. Popularity began to grow with the development of such world famous organizations as the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) in the USA and the PRIDE Fighting Championship in Japan.

Today mixed martial arts MMA is the most progressively developing type of martial arts. This is evidenced by the number of tournaments and broadcasts held in almost every country, the development of the industry of fighting halls, clothing, equipment, equipment and the cultivation of the fighting subculture in the general population.

History of origin of Mixed Martial Arts MMA

Back in 648 BC. e. the ancient Greeks competed at the ancient Olympic Games in Pankration, a martial art that resembled modern mixed martial arts MMA in its form and rules. Subsequently, pankration was transform into a more brutal Etruscan and ancient Roman “pankration”. In this style, battles were carry out even in the Coliseum and often fights ended in the death of the soldiers. The most outstanding of them award statues, which is install for all to see.

After the decline of the Roman Empire, mixed martial arts disappeared into the national martial arts and began to enter the arena at the end of the 19th century, when fights between representatives of various martial arts schools became popular for the entertainment of the public. Boxer versus karate or master of jiu-jitsu versus judoka – such a spectacle is often on the circus arenas in Europe and Asia, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

After World War I, mixed martial arts present in 2 directions:

  • real competition under. we will call it shootwrestling,
  • second – staged fights, which have consistently evolved and come to modern show fights of professional wrestling.

In the 60s, the idea of ​​combining the styles was develop by the renowned Chinese American film maker and film actor Bruce Lee. His Jeet Kune Do system combines many of the principles and concepts of combat, which are now the basis for the technique and strategy of mixed combat. Bruce Lee with his style and especially his films influenced the development of  MMA so much that in 2004 Dana White (President of the UFC) called Bruce “the father of mixed martial arts MMA”. Of course, even before Bruce Lee, there were mix fighting styles in Japan and China.

In the USSR, mixed martial arts appeared along with combat sambo in the 20s – 30s of the XX century. The combat section of sambo is in its essence the closest to MMA, therefore, representatives of combat sambo (BC) successfully perform in  MMA on world and national arenas. The most striking fighter of BS is the repeated world champion Fedor Emelianenko.

Since 1979, in the units of the special forces of the Soviet army, competitions in army hand-to-hand combat have been held, the rules of which are very similar to mixed martial arts. In modern mixed martial arts MMA, the most prominent representative of this style is Sergey Kharitonov.Types

Types of Mixed Martial Arts MMA

Mixed martial arts MMA consists of a variety of directions that allow you to defeat the enemy in several ways. This includes:

  • Boxing
  • Karate
  • Kickboxing
  • Jujutsu
  • Thai boxing
  • Grappling

Do you want to master mixed martial arts? Then hurry up to sign up for an mixed martial arts MMA training with one of our coaches. It will be comfortable to train in our fight club: both girls and men. In the classroom there is an opportunity not only to work out techniques, but also to learn in more detail about modern mixed martial arts. If there is a desire to develop in this more professionally, then our team will provide you with such an opportunity!

Fundamental rules of mixed martial arts MMA

Strikes are use both in the clinch (standing) and in the parterre (on the floor). Compared to previous centuries, modern mixed martial arts have many limitations. This applies to various aspects: the weight of the wrestlers, the time limit and the techniques. It was decide to make such changes in order to maintain the overall health of the athletes. Many country representatives accepted the proposal to ban strikes to the groin, throat, back of the head and spine, eyes, and many other vulnerable areas. Also, there is a ban on bites.

The fight consists of 3 rounds with a duration of 5 minutes each. A title fight can be 5 rounds

The place for the fight is also very important. The arena must be octagonal, with a floor specially designed for MMA.The team of professional trainers is glad to welcome students to their ranks – everyone! We have everything you need to help beginners master of mixed martial arts MMA, as well as take professionals to the next level in the sport. If you have any questions, you can always ask the trainers of the Nikko Fight Club sports club. We will help you become a strong and confident fighter, regardless of age and other characteristics!

Modern mixed martial arts MMA

Modern  MMA in the world has developed along 2 paths:

  1. the first path was paved by the Brazilian Valetudo (from the port. “Everything is allowed”), which appeared in the 30s in Brazil thanks to Carlos and Helio Gracie, who, being representatives of the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu school, declared a challenge to other martial arts schools, the so-called ” Gracie’s challenge. ” Meeting with other representatives, they proved the superiority of their school directly in battle;
  2. The second path began in Japan, where in the 70s professional fighter Kanji Inoki organized several fights according to mixed rules, one of which was the infamous fight between Inoki and boxer Mohammed Ali.

Initially, it is suppose that to fight according to mixed rules, but at the last moment a number of restrictions are introduce. which significantly affect to both the spectacle of the fight and its result. Kicking was allowed only when the striker is on the floor of the ring. Inoki lay on the floor for the entire fight, striking the legs of Muhammad Ali, seriously injuring him. Of course, such a fight is not like by the audience.The glory of unattractive performances was entrench for mixed fights due to the in adapted rules and incompatibility of styles. However, this did not prevent Inoki from conducting unauthorized battles in the future, however, which were not popular.

In 1986, thanks to the fame of these fights, the first organization of mixed martial arts “Shooto” was create. Kanji Inoki himself was not affiliate with this organization. It was create by his wrestling buddy Satoru Sayama.

Mixed martial arts in USA

In the United States, the popularity of mixed fighting began to grow after 1993. The championship is organize by a businessman from California Art Davey and the head of the jujitsu school Rorion Gracie. The tournament grid consist of 8 fighters representing:

  • sumo,
  • savat,
  • boxing ,
  • karate,
  • fight.

The prize fund was modest, by today’s standards, $ 50,000.

The tournament was watched by about 3,000 spectators in the hall and another 90,000 who bought paid broadcast on television. To everyone’s great surprise, the winner was the representative of the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Royce Gracie, who defeated heavier and more physically strong rivals due to painful and choke holds that were little known at that time. Royce subsequently won 2 more tournaments, thereby popularizing Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, which is very famous and developed at the present time and is the basis for preparing a fighter for a fight on the ground.

In Japan

In 1997, largest MMA organization is create in Japan. The Pride Fighting Championship (PRIDE), whose champions at different times were such world MMA stars as:

  • Fedor Emelianenko,
  • Igor Vovchanchin,
  • Mirko Krokop,
  • Mark Coleman,
  • and etc.

In the world and in Russia

In the future, various MMA organizations appeared in the world.Some of them have already ceased to exist. Others have merged with larger promotions, the rest continue to function and develop.

In Russia, MMA is not developing at the same pace as in America. There were no definite rules as such; if there was medical care, it was at a very low level. The situation was streamlined by the appearance in the native spaces of the Japanese promotion RINGS; which lit such stars of domestic MMA as: Wolf-Khan, Andrey Kopylov, Nikolai Zuev. In these tournaments, the outstanding Russian fighter, multiple world champion in MMA Fyodor Emelianenko began his performances on professional sites.

Today the development of domestic MMA is hamper by the low standard of living and economy in the country.In the United States, mixed martial arts confidently hold the first place in popularity among the population; and the paid broadcasts of the tournaments of such the largest world promotion of the UFC have long broken all records and are on the same level; or even higher, with professional boxing …

Promotional business policy played a very large role in this. In 2001, the UFC is bring by the owners of the Station Casinos casino chain. Who appointed former boxing promoter Dana White as president of the company. Thanks to his influence and competent management, MMA began to develop rapidly and in 2007 the paid broadcast of the championship fight between Chuck Lid dell and Tito Ortiz broke all records and in terms of volume approached the most expensive fights in history.
After the brothers bought the main competitor PRIDE, the UFC becomes the No. 1 promotion in the world.