In the traditional sense, clean energy refers to environmentally friendly energy, which means environmental protection, low emissions, and low pollution. But this concept is not accurate enough
Indeed, it is easy to make people mistakenly think that it is the classification of energy, that energy is divided into clean and unclean, and thus misunderstand the original meaning of clean energy.
The accurate definition of clean energy should be a technical system for the clean, efficient, and systematic application of energy. There are three meanings: the first clean energy is not a simple classification of energy, but refers to the technical system of energy utilization; the second clean energy not only emphasizes cleanliness but also economics; the cleanliness of the third clean energy refers to a certain Emission standard.
Renewable energy refers to energy with renewable raw materials, such as hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, biomass (biogas), geothermal energy (including ground and water sources), and ocean tide energy. Renewable energy does not have the possibility of energy exhaustion. Therefore, the development and utilization of renewable energy have received increasing attention from many countries, especially countries with energy shortages.
September 20, 2019, the National Energy Board Development Planning Department Director Li Fulong said, is studying “Fourteen five” energy development plan, will continue to grow clean energy development
Energy is the material that provides energy conversion to the natural world ( mineral energy, nuclear physical energy, atmospheric circulation energy, geographical energy). Energy is the material basis of human activities. In a sense, the development of human society is inseparable from the emergence of high-quality energy and the use of advanced energy technologies. In today’s world, the development of energy, energy, and the environment are issues of common concern to the whole world and all mankind and important issues of my country’s social and economic development.
Clean energy and meaning include two aspects:
(1) Renewable energy
It can be replenished after consumption, and no or very few pollutants are produced. Such as solar energy, wind energy, biological energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, etc. China is an international clean energy giant and the birthplace of the world’s largest solar, wind, and environmental technology companies.
(2) Non-renewable energy
Minimize pollution to the ecological environment in the production and consumption process, including the use of low-polluting fossil energy (such as natural gas, etc.) and the use of fossil energy treated with clean energy technology, such as clean coal and clean oil.
Although nuclear energy is a clean energy source, it consumes uranium fuel and is not a renewable energy source. The investment is relatively high, and almost all
New energy promotional pictures
Countries, including those with the most advanced technology and management, cannot guarantee the absolute safety of nuclear power plants. The Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union, the Three Mile Island accident in the United States, and the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan are all very affected. In particular, nuclear power plants The main targets of war or terrorist attacks may have serious consequences after being attacked. Therefore, developed countries are delaying the construction of nuclear power plants. Germany is preparing to gradually shut down all nuclear power plants and replace them with renewable energy. However, the cost of renewable energy is more expensive. Other energy sources are higher.
Renewable energy is the most ideal energy. It can not be affected by energy shortage, but it is also affected by natural conditions, such as water, wind, and solar resources. The most important thing is high investment and maintenance costs and low efficiency. The cost of electricity generated is high. Now many scientists are actively looking for ways to improve the efficiency of using renewable energy. It is believed that with the shortage of earth resources, renewable energy will play an increasingly important role.
Ocean energy refers to the renewable energy attached to the sea. The ocean receives stores and emits energy through various physical processes. This energy exists in the ocean in the form of tides, waves, temperature differences, salinity gradients, and ocean currents.
1, tidal energy
2, wave energy
3, ocean thermal energy
4. Salt difference energy
5. Ocean current energy
1. The conversion of light and heat. Such as solar water heaters, solar stoves, solar thermal power generation systems, etc.
2. The conversion of light and electricity, such as solar panels, solar cars, boats, etc.
Solar clean energy is the conversion of the sun’s light energy into other forms of heat, electricity, and chemical energy. The energy conversion process does not produce other harmful gases or solid waste. It is a new type of energy that is environmentally friendly, safe, and pollution-free.
The results of the full life assessment (LCA) on the comprehensive utilization of solar energy show that the past utilization of solar energy photoelectric conversion relies on the high pollution and high energy consumption materials in the production process of solar panels, so the utilization cost and environmental cost are both Higher. The thermoelectricity studied is in the direction of solar thermal utilization.
The kinetic energy is generated by the massive air movement on the earth’s surface. Due to the different temperature changes and the different content of water vapor in the air after the ground is irradiated by the sun, the difference in air pressure is caused. The high-pressure air in the horizontal direction flows to the low-pressure area, which forms wind. Wind energy resources are determined by the density of wind energy and the accumulated hours of wind energy available per year. Wind energy density is unit windward
The available wind power is proportional to the power of the wind speed and the air density. It is estimated that the world’s total wind energy is about 130 billion kilowatts. Wind energy resources are greatly affected by topography, and most of the world’s wind energy resources are concentrated in the shrinking areas of coastal and open continents. In nature, the wind is renewable, non-polluting, and huge reserves of energy. With the global warming and energy crisis, all countries are stepping up the development and utilization of wind power, minimizing the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and protecting the earth on which we depend.
The use of wind energy is mainly in the form of wind energy as power and wind power generation, of which wind power is the mainstay. Using wind energy as power means using wind to directly drive various mechanical devices, such as driving a water pump to lift water. This type of wind engine’s advantages is a low investment, high work efficiency, economic and durability.
1. Among all gases, hydrogen has the best thermal conductivity, which is 10 times higher than that of most gases. Therefore, hydrogen is an excellent heat transfer carrier in the energy industry.
2. Hydrogen is the most common element in nature. It is estimated that it constitutes 75% of the mass of the universe. Except for hydrogen contained in the air, it is mainly stored in water in the form of a compound, and water is the most widespread substance on the earth. According to calculations, if all the hydrogen in seawater is extracted, the total heat produced by it is 9,000 times greater than the heat released by all fossil fuels on the earth.
3. Except for nuclear fuel, the calorific value of hydrogen is the highest among all fossil fuels, chemical fuels, and biofuels, at 142,351kJ/kg, which is three times the calorific value of gasoline.
4. Hydrogen has good combustion performance, fast ignition, wide combustible range when mixed with air, high ignition point, and fast burning speed.
5. Hydrogen itself is non-toxic. Compared with other fuels, hydrogen is the cleanest when burned. Except for water and a small amount of hydrogen nitride, it will not produce harmful pollution such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, lead compounds, and dust particles. Substances, a small amount of hydrogen nitride will not pollute the environment after proper treatment, and the water produced by combustion can continue to produce hydrogen and be recycled repeatedly.
Bioenergy is a form of energy stored in organisms in the form of chemical energy by solar energy, a kind of energy with biomass as a carrier, which directly or indirectly comes from the photosynthesis of plants. Among various renewable energy sources, biomass is unique. It is stored solar energy and is the only renewable carbon source that can be converted into conventional solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. All biomass has a certain amount of energy, and the main use of energy is the by-products of agriculture and forestry and its processing residues, including human and animal manure and organic waste. Biomass provides basic fuel for humans. Sweet sorghum is the main biomass energy. China’s sweet sorghum was the first Yajin series of sweet sorghum varieties cultivated by scientists in 1965. Sweet sorghum is resistant to waterlogging, drought, and salt-alkali. It is suitable for planting from Hainan Island to Heilongjiang. Brix 18-23%, 4 per acre to produce one ton of sweet sorghum no aquatic ethanol. The proportion of sweet sorghum bioethanol in gasoline in China accounts for 10%. 70% of my country’s biomass energy reserves are abundant in the vast rural areas, and the application is also mainly in rural areas. Quite a few regions are already promoting and demonstrating rural biogas technology. The technology is simple and mature and is gradually being promoted.
Bioenergy has the following advantages:
(1) Provide low-sulfur fuel.
(2) Provide cheap energy (under certain conditions).
(3) Converting organic matter into fuel can reduce environmental hazards (for example, garbage fuel).
(4) Compared with other non-traditional energy sources, there are fewer technical problems.
As for its disadvantages:
(1) Plants can only convert a very small amount of solar energy into organic matter,
(2) The organic matter-energy per unit of land is low,
(3) Lack of land suitable for planting plants,
(4) The water content of organic matter is too much (50%～95%)
Geothermal energy is natural thermal energy extracted from the earth’s crust. This energy comes from the lava inside the earth and exists in the form of heat, which causes volcanic eruptions and
The energy of an earthquake. The temperature inside the earth is as high as 7000 degrees Celsius, and at a depth of 80 to 100 kilometers, the temperature drops to 650 degrees to 1200 degrees Celsius. Through the flow of groundwater and lava flow to the earth’s crust 1 to 5 kilometers above the ground, the heat can be transferred to a place closer to the ground. The hot lava heats nearby groundwater, and this heated water will eventually seep out of the ground. The simplest and most cost-effective way to use geothermal energy is to directly use these heat sources and extract their energy. Geothermal energy is a renewable resource.
1. Direct power generation and comprehensive utilization at 200～400℃;
2. 150～200℃ double-cycle power generation, refrigeration, industrial drying, industrial thermal processing;
3. 100～150℃ double-cycle power generation, heating, refrigeration, industrial drying, dehydration processing, salt recovery, canned food;
4. Heating at 50～100℃, greenhouse, domestic hot water, industrial drying;
5. Bathing at 20～50℃, aquaculture, livestock breeding, soil heating, dehydration processing.
To improve the utilization rate of geothermal heat, many countries now adopt cascade development and comprehensive utilization methods, such as combined heat and power, combined heat, power and cooling, heating first, and then breeding.
Geothermal power generation
Steam-type geothermal power generation
Hot water type geothermal power generation
Hydropower is a kind of renewable energy and clean energy, which refers to energy resources such as kinetic energy, potential energy, and pressure energy of water bodies. In a broad sense, hydropower resources include river hydropower, tidal hydropower, wave energy, ocean current energy, and other energy resources; in a narrow sense, hydropower resources refer to river hydropower resources. It is conventional energy, primary energy. Not only can water be used directly by humans, but it is also a carrier of energy. Solar energy drives the water cycle on the earth and keeps it going. The flow of surface water is an important part. In areas with large drops and large flows, hydropower resources are abundant. With the decline of fossil fuels, hydropower is a very important and promising alternative resource. Hydroelectric power generation in the world is still in its infancy. Water movements such as rivers, tides, waves, and swells can all be used to generate electricity.
Including the clean utilization of conventional energy sources, such as coal gasification and liquefaction; the utilization of renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal energy, and biological energy; and the development of new energy sources (such as hydrogen fuel ). The calorific value of hydrogen fuel is 4 times that of the same weight of carbon. The fuel product is water, which does not pollute the environment and is ideal clean energy in the future.
Nuclear energy (or atomic energy) is the energy released from the nucleus by transforming its mass. It conforms to Albert Einstein’s equation E=mc², where E=energy, m=mass, and c=speed of light constant. Nuclear energy is released through one of three nuclear reactions: 1. Nuclear fission opens up the binding force of atomic nuclei. 2. Nuclear fusion, where the particles of atoms fuse. 3. Nuclear decay, a naturally much slower form of fission.
1. Nuclear power generation does not emit a huge amount of pollutants into the atmosphere like fossil fuel power generation, so nuclear power generation does not cause air pollution.
2. Nuclear power will not aggravate global warming is carbon dioxide.
3. The uranium fuel used in nuclear power generation has no other purpose except power generation.
4. The energy density of nuclear fuel is several million times higher than that of fossil fuels. Therefore, the fuel used by nuclear power plants is small and convenient for transportation and storage. A 1,000-megawatt nuclear power plant only needs 30 metric tons of uranium fuel a year. , A voyage of aircraft can complete the delivery.
5. In the cost of nuclear power generation, fuel costs account for a relatively low proportion, and the cost of nuclear power generation is less susceptible to the impact of the international economic situation, so the cost of power generation is more stable than other power generation methods.
1. Nuclear power plants will produce high- and low-level radioactive waste, or used nuclear fuel. Although it occupies a small volume, it is radioactive.
Therefore, it must be handled carefully, and considerable political distress must be faced.
2. The thermal efficiency of nuclear power plants is low, and therefore more waste heat is discharged into the environment than ordinary fossil fuel power plants, so the thermal pollution of nuclear power plants is more serious.
3. The investment cost of nuclear power plants is too high, and the financial risks of power companies are relatively high.
4. Nuclear power plants are less suitable for peak and off-peak on-load operations.
5. The construction of nuclear power plants is more likely to cause political differences and disputes.
6. There are a lot of radioactive materials in the reactor of the nuclear power plant. If they are released into the external environment in an accident, it will cause harm to the ecology and the people.
Current Situation in China
Nuclear energy is a clean energy source. The nuclear power plants that China has built include the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, and the Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station. The operation is good. It is one of my country’s main sources of power generation, second only to coal and hydropower. According to Sina.com, the Chinese government’s recent plan is to actively develop nuclear power between 2006 and 2010, focusing on the construction of million-kilowatt nuclear power plants. The long-term plan is to increase the annual nuclear power generation capacity from 8,700 MW to 2020. 40,000 megawatts means that China will build 30 more nuclear power plants in the 14 years from 2006 to 2020.
Flywheel energy storage
Flywheel energy storage is a technology that uses a high-speed rotating flywheel to store energy. In the energy storage stage, the flywheel is driven by the motor to accelerate the flywheel to a certain speed and convert electrical energy into kinetic energy; in the energy release stage, the flywheel decelerates and drives the motor to operate as a generator, converting kinetic energy into electrical energy. A typical flywheel energy storage device generally includes a high-speed rotating flywheel, a closed shell and bearing system, a power conversion and control system, etc.
Flywheel energy storage has the advantages of high energy storage density, the number of charge and discharge times has nothing to do with the depth of charge and discharge, high energy conversion efficiency, high reliability, easy maintenance, low use environmental conditions, and no pollution. However, the development of a large-scale flywheel energy storage system is still difficult in technologies such as high-speed and low-loss bearings, power generation/motors, heat dissipation, and vacuum.
Flywheel energy storage technology mainly has two branches. One is the large-capacity flywheel energy storage technology represented by contact mechanical bearings. Its main feature is to store kinetic energy and release high power. It is generally used for short-term high-power discharge and power peak shaving. occasion. The second is the small and medium-capacity flywheel energy storage technology represented by magnetic suspension bearings. Its main features are compact structure and higher efficiency and are generally used as flywheel batteries and uninterruptible power supplies.
Responding to the energy crisis
7 steps to cope with the energy crisis
How will China respond to the severe energy crisis? It is necessary to carry out strategic planning and layout of energy to ensure my country’s energy security capabilities. In this regard, Zhang Yousheng put forward 7 points:
1. Actively grasp the pace of development and form an efficient energy production system. This is the priority choice of my country’s energy strategy.
It is not sustainable to import desperately while wasteful at the same time. From an economic point of view, our current demand expansion has not yet adequately reflected the increase in oil prices. There are many reasons for this. High oil demand. Therefore, the top-level design and overall planning must be strengthened.
2. Reasonably use energy, actively guide consumption, and control total consumption; China’s per capita energy resources are low; energy efficiency is low and the energy consumption is high; the large-scale development and utilization of fossil energy, especially coal, pollutes the ecological environment; this status quo all affect energy security and restrict the development of China’s energy industry.
These problems are determined by the international energy competition pattern and China’s productivity level. They are also closely related to the unreasonable industrial and energy structure, extensive energy development and utilization methods, and the lagging reform of related systems and mechanisms. It is necessary to vigorously promote the transformation of energy production and utilization methods, and continuously improve the policy system, to achieve comprehensive and coordinated, and sustainable development of energy and economy, society, and ecology.
In particular, the rational consumption of oil should be my country’s long-term energy strategy and policy goal and various measures need to be taken to save energy. From an economic point of view, both recyclable and non-recyclable resources are scarce. The development of a resource-saving recycling economy is an economic development model that can realize the rational allocation of resources.
In addition, we must pay full attention to the role of price in regulating demand. Oil exporting countries adopt subsidies, the United States allows free development and low taxes, while Europe and Japan adopt a high tax attitude to curb excessive consumption. However, our country needs to subsidize and keep oil prices down, but it also wants to save money, but it also wants to promote safety. This is a dilemma. It is necessary to actively advocate a convenient and comfortable way of life and consumption that is suitable for my country’s national conditions, is valuable, has social and cultural content.
3. Resolutely promote reforms in the energy sector, accelerate the establishment of systems and mechanisms conducive to the development of energy science, improve the environment for energy development, promote changes in energy production and utilization methods, and ensure national energy security.
The first is to accelerate the construction of the energy legal system. China attaches great importance to and continues to actively promote the construction of an energy legal system. It is studying and demonstrating the formulation of energy law and administrative regulations on petroleum reserves, offshore oil and gas pipeline protection, and nuclear power management, and revising and improving existing laws such as the Coal Law and Electricity Law Laws and regulations to promote legislative work in the fields of oil and gas, nuclear energy, etc.
The second is to improve the market system and mechanism. China is actively advancing the reform of energy marketization and giving full play to the fundamental role of the market in allocating resources. All projects listed in the national energy plan are open to private capital except those explicitly prohibited by laws and regulations. Encourage private capital to participate in energy resource exploration and development, oil and natural gas pipeline network construction, and power construction, encourage private capital to develop coal processing and transformation and oil refining industries and continue to support private capital to fully enter the new energy and renewable energy industries.
Third, strengthen the management of the energy industry. Attach importance to the strategic planning and macro-control of energy development, and comprehensively use planning, policies, standards, and other means to implement industry management.
Fourth, the layout is reasonable, and resources such as crude oil are actively reserved. Some measures may have to be laid out in advance. We need to start with the oil transportation channels, including the blockade issues mentioned by Iran and the Strait of Hormuz. These factors should all be considered. We should also stick to the diversification of energy imports. On the one hand, we must consider the economy, on the other hand, we must fully consider not putting eggs in one basket.
5. Improve timely and flexible emergency response mechanisms. To avoid interruption of energy supply caused by accidental disasters, and to improve my country’s energy emergency response capabilities.
6. Coordinated guarantees to form a diversified supply system for international energy and foreign aid. A diversified energy supply system is very important. The increase in fossil energy in my country is limited, and it is necessary to realize a simultaneous application system of coal, water, petroleum, shale gas, and other energy sources. In energy cooperation, we should establish a new energy security concept featuring mutually beneficial cooperation, diversified development, and coordinated guarantees, coordinate both international and domestic markets and two resources, accurately grasp cooperation opportunities, strengthen energy cooperation with neighboring countries, and develop an open pattern. China maintains national energy security. At the same time, to vigorously develop new renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and biomass energy, it is necessary to have a long-term development strategy to make it gradually weaker from the present, and gradually play a substantive role as a substitute. Master the most advanced nuclear, water, and electricity technologies, promote the diversified and clean development of energy and cultivate strategic emerging industries.
7. Increase my country’s voice in world energy governance, participate in and influence the world’s energy players, and guide the world energy market. At the beginning of 2012, Premier Wen Jiabao proposed at the World Future Energy Summit, “All countries should consider establishing a new mechanism for the global energy market under the framework of the G20.” This is seen by the outside world as the response of China’s top leaders under the global energy change. To meet the domestic energy supply gap while insisting on keeping a foothold at home, China will continue to implement the “going out” strategy and strengthen the cooperative development of overseas oil and gas resources. Improve international cooperation systems and mechanisms, and deeply participate in global energy governance. Strengthen communication and cooperation with countries around the world, jointly deal with the impact of the international currency system, excessive speculation, monopoly operation, and other factors on the energy market, and maintain the international energy market and price stability.
Whether clean coal is clean energy is still controversial.
- 1 basic concept
- 2 Basic Information
- ▪ energy
- ▪ (1) Renewable energy
- ▪ (2) Non-renewable energy
- 3 Ocean Energy
- 4 Solar energy
- 5 Wind energy
- 6 Hydrogen energy
- 7 Bioenergy
- 8 Geothermal Energy
- ▪ Overview
- ▪ use
- 9 Hydropower
- 10 nuclear energy
- ▪ advantage
- ▪ Disadvantage
- ▪ Current Situation in China
- 11 Flywheel energy storage
- 12 Responding to the energy crisis
- 13 Prospects
- ▪ China prospects
- ▪ International prospects